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Intro to high-resolution audio

Music downloads that get back to great sound

By

Steve Kindig

Steve Kindig has been an electronics enthusiast for over 30 years. He has written extensively about home and car A/V gear for Crutchfield since 1985. Steve is also a volunteer DJ at community radio station WTJU, where he is a regular host of the American folk show "Atlantic Weekly," as well as the world music program "Radio Tropicale."

More from Steve Kindig

Drummer

Close your eyes and the musicians are in the room

The performance is spread out before you, complete in every detail. The singer takes a breath between phrases, the guitarist's fingers squeak lightly as they travel up the fretboard, and the drummer coaxes a delicate, shimmering rhythm from his ride cymbal.

Sure, you need good equipment to hear these nuances, but you also need a high-quality source. This is why we're so excited about high-resolution audio. With a level of sonic detail that's better than CD, downloadable high-res music files can deliver sound so real, you feel like you're sharing the studio or the stage with your favorite musicians. Once you've had this kind of fully engaged listening experience, it's hard to go back to ordinary sound.

Leaving limitations behind

You can’t beat the convenience of digital music files. But low-resolution files (like the ones you get from the iTunes® store) can sound thin and flat when played through a good audio system.

If you want convenience and good sound, you owe it to yourself to try high-resolution music downloads. With the right setup, you’ll get sound that’s as good as or better than CDs.

High-res digital music has been popular with audiophiles for years. There have been disc formats like Super Audio CD (SACD), and in recent years, online music stores specializing in CD-quality-or better downloads have emerged.

Now high-res audio seems ready to break out to a wider audience. Music labels are offering thousands of titles across every music genre. The gear and software you need to play high-res files are getting friendlier and more affordable. But there are some things you need to know before you dive in. This article will help you understand the buzzwords and show you how to enjoy high-resolution audio.

What is high-resolution audio?

When you download music from the iTunes® Store or Amazon, you’re paying for “lossy” compressed files with a bit-rate of 256 kilobits-per-second. You won’t find CD-quality or high-res files at either site. But when you browse high-res online music stores like HDtracks, you’ll find only CD-quality or better downloads. These files cost more than MP3s, but the difference in sound quality can be startling.

Audio bit rate comparison chart

Typical lossy music downloads only have a fraction of the music information contained in a CD track. And high-resolution audio can provide much more musical detail than CD. (Bit-rates are listed in kilobits-per-second.)

High-resolution audio file types

When you purchase high-res music tracks you can usually choose from several file format options (see below). High-res players and software don’t always support all file types, so make sure you choose files that are compatible with your setup. Beyond compatibility, keep in mind that “uncompressed” audio files will take up around 50% more storage space on your computer or hard drive than “lossless compressed” files. Uncompressed and lossless files should theoretically sound the same.

Uncompressed files

PCM – the basic audio file format for digital music, whether it's MP3, CD-quality, or high-resolution.

WAV – the main audio format for Windows-based computers.

AIFF – the main audio file format for Apple® computers.

DSD – the only non-PCM-based file type listed here. This format stores audio in a fundamentally different way than PCM.

Lossless-compressed files

FLAC – an increasingly popular lossless audio option, however, it’s not compatible with some music playback software, including iTunes.

ALAC– aka Apple Lossless, the main lossless audio option for Apple computers.

Getting comfortable with the numbers

Besides choosing the file format, you can also usually have a few resolution options. For digital audio files, there are two key pieces of information: “word-length” and “sampling frequency.” CD has a word length of 16 bits and a sampling frequency of 44,100 Hertz (a Hertz equals one cycle per second). You typically see resolution specs abbreviated, so that CD-quality files are listed as 16-bit/44.1kHz.

You can achieve better-than-CD sound quality through higher word lengths, higher sampling frequencies, or both. High-res audio is typically 24-bit, with a sampling frequency of 88.2kHz or higher. Except for DSD, all of the file types we’ve mentioned so far use the same basic digital audio format, called PCM. PCM takes snapshots of the musical waveform – the word length measures how detailed the snapshot is, and the sampling frequency tells you how many snapshots per second. Taking more detailed snapshots, and many more of them, can produce a more accurate “picture” of the musical performance, but all that extra data creates a much bigger file. A 24-bit/96kHz music file will take up about three times more hard drive space than a CD-quality file.

DSD is a digital audio format that stores audio differently than PCM. It’s a “1-bit” system, which means that the music signal is processed as a stream of single bits rather than multi-bit chunks. A few websites offer DSD music downloads, and a small but growing number of components can play DSD files.

File type Word length Sampling rate Bit rate Albums per 1TB of storage
Typical lossy music download N/A N/A 256 kbps 10,500
CD 16-bit 44.1kHz 1411kbps 2000
24/88.2 download 24-bit 88.2kHz 4233 kbps 690
24/96 download 24-bit 96kHz 4608 kbps 630
24/176.4 download 24-bit 176.4kHz 8467 kbps 350
24/192 download 24-bit 192kHz 9216 kbps 320
DSD 64 download 1-bit 2.8MHz 5644 kbps 500
DSD 128 download 1-bit 5.6MHz 11,288 kbps 250

MQA: A new approach to digital music playback

So far, we've been talking about PCM- or DSD-based high-res files. These formats sound terrific, but the music files are huge. A new digital encoding and decoding system called MQA (Master Quality Authenticated) aims to deliver high-res or better sound quality using bit rates that are low enough for music streaming services. At this point, MQA is only available on a very limited selection of equipment and content.

One of MQA's co-developers is Bob Stuart of Meridian Audio, the famed British high-end company. MQA is backward-compatible with existing audio gear and music distribution infrastructures. MQA files are formatted as standard PCM files (FLAC, AIFF, WAV, etc.). If you don't have an MQA DAC, the file will play on any regular DAC with slightly-better-than-CD sound quality. But if you have an MQA-capable DAC, the file will "unfold" the high-resolution information and deliver the resolution of the original studio master.

We carry one MQA-compatible portable player, the Pioneer XDP-100R. For a detailed explanation of how MQA works, see Robert Harley's excellent article in the May/June 2016 issue of The Absolute Sound.

Where to find high-res music

If you've never heard high-resolution audio, you can visit some of the high-res music stores listed below. Most of these websites offer a few high-res music files you can download and listen to for free.

HDtracks — www.hdtracks.com
The world’s largest selection of high-res audio downloads; file formats: WAV, AIFF, ALAC, FLAC

Acoustic Sounds — store.acousticsounds.com/superhirez
Wide selection of audiophile recordings; formats: FLAC, ALAC, DSD, Blu-ray, SACD

HighResAudio — www.highresaudio.com
German high-res audio site offering a wide selection of music; file formats: WAV, AIFF, FLAC

iTrax — www.itrax.com
High-res audio download site that offers many recordings in either stereo or surround sound; file formats: MP3, Dolby Digital, DTS, WMA Lossless, FLAC, PCM, Blu-ray, DVD-Audio

Blue Coast Records — www.bluecoastrecords.com
Record label specializing in high-res recordings of primarily acoustic music; file formats: DSD, PCM, WAV

Channel Classics — www.channelclassics.com
Record label specializing in classical music recordings; file formats: FLAC, DSD

If there's a particular song or album you'd like to purchase as a high-res or CD-quality file, here are two search engines you can try:

Find HD Music high-res audio search — www.findhdmusic.com

FLACme CD-quality search — flacme.com

A media player for audiophiles

When it comes to storing, organizing, and playing back music on your computer, iTunes® gets a lot of things right. But it may not be the best choice if you want to build a high-res music collection. It doesn't provide the best sound quality available, and doesn't support some common high-res file formats, like FLAC.

JRiver Media Center is a popular and great-sounding alternative. It's available for PC and Mac®, and can be downloaded here.

Find the right high-res gear for your needs

You can choose from an expanding variety of high-res-capable playback equipment. Everything from portable players and plug-in digital-to-analog converters (DACs) for your laptop, to full-sized component DACs and music servers.

Shop for high-res gear

Still have questions? Read our high-resolution audio Q & A .

Last updated April 29, 2016
  • Chuck from wilm,DE

    Posted on 6/23/2015 11:33:38 AM

    I hear that albums have the best sound, but how do they compare to the resolution of the downloads? The chart above makes it confusing, 24bit/96KHZ to albums 630TB? What is TB?

  • Jeff Miller from Crutchfield

    Posted on 6/26/2015 2:04:46 PM

    Chuck, vinyl is analog, so really doesn't have a comparable resolution to digital. Analog sound provides the complete, unsampled waveform, while digital formats use resolution to talk about how accurately that original waveform is reproduced.

  • Matias from Fort Lauderdale

    Posted on 11/7/2015 10:41:21 PM

    A TB is TeraByte is 1,000,000 megabyte, at the chart is telling that in a TB there are going to fit around 630 albums The khz is how many samples per second the sound wave will be sample, bigger is better The bit is how many levels that specific value will be linked, also bigger is better. But at the end is trying to be the close as possible to the true sound and the Vinyl is the most accurate recording.

  • Clarence from SILVER SPRING

    Posted on 11/11/2015 2:11:57 PM

    If you look at a sound wave, digital recordings are actually "snapshots" in time, also known as "sampling". So, a given piece of music is "sampled" many times per second-so more "snapshots" in a given amount of time (one second), means the recording is clearer. With analog recordings (which are performed on tape), you are hearing the music as its recorded and it is not "sampled". So you could say, vinyl is the most accurate recording. However, tapes can degrade over time and it is possible that the sound will degrade over time with analog recordings. With digital, the recording is digital and does not degrade. A digital recording may not be the most accurate recording, but each "bit" or "snapshot" will sound exactly the same every time. I hope that makes sense. I use vinyl a lot and sometimes its hard to tell the difference between vinyl and a digital recording at 24/192. In fact, I would have a hard time telling the difference between vinyl and 24/192 if I was blindfolded.

  • Matt from Milwaukee

    Posted on 12/8/2015 9:37:38 PM

    My Dell laptop has Realtec HD audio, would this be high-res audio?

  • Nick

    Posted on 2/4/2016 7:45:36 PM

    Matt, High Res Audio is music or sounds sampled (recorded digitally) at a certain bit rate. Where as HD Audio is a specification of the audio system on your computer. Meaning your computer's audio architecture meets certain requirements. One of those requirements is being able to play High Res audio, sampled at 24/192.

  • Gary from Ohio from Columbus

    Posted on 2/12/2016 7:43:40 AM

    Hi Gary from Reno, I have an aux port on the head unit in my vehicle I connect to my smartphone, and I use Onkyo HF Player App to play FLAC files from there. The HF Player supports Hi Res formats if connected to an external DAC, if you really want the higher quality. I have also used the HF Player with Bluetooth. The nice thing about it is it will play your Hi Res files at a lower sample rate if you don't have a DAC, so you don't need to have duplicate FLAC files at different resolutions to enjoy your music via the smartphone vs your Hi Res players.

  • Steve from phila

    Posted on 4/22/2016 9:32:13 AM

    First, a Terrabyte (TB) is 1,000 Megabytes (MB) not 1,000,000 MB. Secondly, a CD can contain compressed audio and there is no way of uncompressing it from the CD. Especially in older recordings that you may see online. It depends on how the CD was mastered. The only possible way to make an older recording higher resolution then what you hear on the published CD is to re-master from the original analog magnetic tapes track,channel by channel and digitize them at a higher resolution. Now, if artists/record companies want to do this they should do it quickly as magnetic tapes fade over time and once it's digital, unless you re-record it that's it!

  • JohnInHvl

    Posted on 4/25/2016 7:51:22 AM

    Steve from Philadelphia, you may want to have another cup of coffee. But didn't you mean to say that 1000 MB is 1 GIgabyte, and 1000 Gigabytes is 1 Terabyte. Which is also 1,000,000 MB . Unless you are looking at processors which look at them as 1024 MB, 1024 GB ... The binary equivalents.


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