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Bluetooth® protocols explained

Understanding the ABCs of your wireless experience

A circuitous path, involving England, New York, rural Michigan, Indiana, and lots of parts in between brought Matthew Freeman to Charlottesville, where he's been writing about mobile audio/video for Crutchfield off and on since early 2000. He fosters an eclectic taste in film, and is fond of a wide range of music. A native of Albuquerque, New Mexico, he found his way to the University of Notre Dame, where, in an act of charity unsurpassed in the history of Western civilization, he was given a B.A. in English.

More from Matt Freeman

Bluetooth wireless technology is a natural for the car. Most people know that by "pairing" (connecting wirelessly, in other words) their Bluetooth phones with their receivers, they'll be able to engage in hands-free calling. But Bluetooth also has other functionality, like wireless streaming of music from smartphones and other Bluetooth devices.

Bluetooth in the car

It does all this by opening up a 2-way line of com­munication between your smartphone and your stereo, letting them have a conversation. You just need to make sure they can speak the same languages. The easiest way to make sure your phone and stereo do all that Bluetooth is capable of is to see if each one is compatible with certain specific Bluetooth protocols. And the easiest way to do that is to check your phone and stereo for the abbreviations we'll discuss below.

Whenever you're shopping for a Bluetooth stereo on our site, you'll find compatible protocols listed in the "In-depth notes" of a given product's "Details" tab. And remember: for a particular feature to work, both your phone and your stereo need to be compatible with the necessary protocol.

Bluetooth logo
Most Common Bluetooth Protocols
Protocol Abbreviation Benefit
Advanced Audio Distribution Protocol A2DP Audio streaming
Audio/Video Remote Control Protocol AVRCP Control over music playback directly from the stereo
Hands-free Profile HFP Hands-free calling through the stereo
Object Push Profile OPP Uploading of contact info to the stereo
Phone Book Access Profile PBAP Access to contact list from the stereo

Get hands-free calling

Bluetooth makes hands-free calling possible

The Bluetooth Hands-free Profile means you can take a call without fumbling with your phone while you drive.

Protocol: Hands-free Profile

Abbreviation: HFP

Most people get Bluetooth in the car for the Hands-Free Profile (HFP), which lets you make and take calls without having to touch your phone. HFP is the same protocol used by Bluetooth headsets for hands-free calling.

The advantage of having a car stereo that works with the hands-free profile is that incoming numbers show up on the stereo’s display, and you hear your callers over your car’s speakers.

When HFP is in action, Bluetooth designates your phone as a "gateway" and your stereo as a "hands-free unit". Your caller's voice passes through the phone and gets sent to your stereo, while your voice passes from an external microphone to your stereo, then to your phone, and on to your caller. Some Bluetooth stereos feature built-in microphones; others come with external microphones that you mount somewhere close to you, like on the sun visor or steering column, then plug into the back of the stereo.

Get access to your phone's contact list

Access your phone contacts through your receiver

Having your stereo access your contacts with the Phone Book Access Protocol makes it easier to place calls in the car.

Protocol: Object Push Profile or Phone Book Access Profile

Abbreviation: OPP, PBAP

Hands-free calling wouldn’t be quite as convenient if you had to use your phone to pull up your contacts. Fortunately, Bluetooth can help in two ways.

The first, and most basic, is with Object Push Profile (OPP). This protocol lets you upload your contacts from your phone to your stereo. How the process works varies by stereo and phone, but basically, you set up a push/pull relationship between your phone and your stereo; you ask your stereo to "pull" the contacts from the phone, while telling your phone to "push" the info to your stereo. Your stereo will also have a limit on the number of contacts you can upload.

The more advanced Phone Book Access Profile (PBAP) lets your stereo tap into your phone’s contacts instead of uploading them. The process typcially intiates itself automatically, and usually goes like this: once your stereo and phone are paired, your stereo will ask your phone, "hey, may I take a peek at your contacts?" Your phone will reply, "I'm not sure, let me check." You'll then get a message from your phone telling you that your stereo is asking to connect with its contact list. All you have to do is approve, and your contacts will show up on your receiver's screen. This makes placing calls much easier.

Many receivers will allow you to engage in voice dialing, but usually only if your phone allows voice dialing. There are a few receivers that will allow voice dialing just by being able to access your phone's contacts.

Enjoy wireless audio streaming

stream music using your bluetooth phone

The Advanced Audio Distribution Profile lets you stream suprisingly good-sounding audio to your compatible stereo.

Protocol: Advanced Audio Distribution Profile

Abbreviation: A2DP

Bluetooth lets you enjoy your tunes, without that pesky tangle of wires. As long as your receiver and your phone “speak” Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP), they’ll make beautiful music together. It’s sure nice to play whatever you have stored on your device without actually having to plug it in. You’ll also be able to hear the audio from most of your smartphone’s music apps. And your backseat passengers can have some fun playing DJ by pairing their devices, too.

So why do they call this profile "Advanced"? It has to do with audio quality: A2DP plays higher-quality mono or stereo audio from formats like MP3 and AAC than standard, narrower Bluetooth audio.

Essentially, A2DP creates a "Source/Sink" relationship between your phone and your stereo, in which your phone, the source, sends signal to your stereo, the sink. A2DP is also used in products such as wireless headphones and wireless speaker systems.

Get control over music playback


bluetooth enabled receiver

With AVRCP, you get some control over wireless music playback (bottom). With version 1.3 of AVRCP, you get to see artist, album, and song info, too (top).

Protocol: Audio/Video Remote Control Profile

Abbreviation: AVRCP

The Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP) allows control from your stereo over the music you’re playing from your phone or device, including songs from apps like Pandora® and Spotify. Bascially, AVRCP turns your stereo into a controller and your phone into a target. Much like a TV remote control, when you push a button on the stereo, AVRCP translates this action into a signal that it then sends to your phone. The end result: the ability to use your stereo's buttons or touchscreen to play, pause, and skip back and forth between tracks.

See song and artist info, too

Protocol: Audio/Video Remote Control Profile

Abbreviation: AVRCP

One of the neat things about connecting your iPod® or iPhone® to your stereo is that it’ll send "metadata" — song, artist, and album title info — to the display. In 2007, version 1.3 of AVRCP was launched, letting Bluetooth do it, too. So now, not only do you get control over your music, you get to see what's playing at all times, even when you're playing music from many popular apps. Newer versions of AVRCP even allow for browsing and manipulation of multiple players.

When it comes to audio playback, AVRCP epitomizes the 2-way communication Bluetooth establishes. Your phone, or other device, sends sound and info to the stereo, while the stereo sends commands to the phone. Sounds like a pretty harmonious relationship to us.

Sound clear?

We hope this article has given you a better understanding of how Bluetooth works. Knowing what to look for in phones and receivers will help you shop with confidence.

[Shop for car stereos with Bluetooth connectivity]

  • Alan Rodney from United States

    Posted on 5/2/2015 6:12:01 PM

    Are any specific bluetooth dongle devices available that are compatible with Pioneer VSX 1021 receiver since discontinuation of the Pioneer AS-BT100 - Bluetooth audio adapter?

  • Larry Hendricks from 58458

    Posted on 5/2/2015 9:10:44 PM

    I have a Razr Maxx and I am considering the purchase of a Exelon DDX-5902. My question: Can Google Maps be sent from the phone to the 5902?? Can any Android navigation app be exported to the 5902?? If the 5902 can't do this , which Exelon can? Thank you,

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 5/4/2015 3:57:36 PM

    Larry, The Kenwood Excelon DDX-5902 does not explicitly cite the Razr Maxx as compatible with its mirroring mode. Even with a compatible phone, however, it's important to note that an HDMI cord will be required to engage mirroring mode. Mirroring mode in this specific receiver does not allow touch control of Android apps on the receiver, but it does allow you to view them in-dash, which would still be useful in the case of Google Maps. Buying a receiver based solely on current Android phone compatibility can be tricky, depending on how soon you plan on upgrading to a new phone. Give us a call at the number above, and an advisor can help you choose a receiver based on your phone status and what sort of functionality you need most out of a receiver.

  • Ken Nail from Crutchfield

    Posted on 5/6/2015 4:01:42 PM

    Alan, great question about your Pioneer receiver. No doubt about it, adding Bluetooth to a home stereo adds a whole new level of functionality to it. To look at your options, we sent your question to our sales team - they'll be contacting you via email soon. For immediate help, you can contact them via phone or chat.

  • Jim Jernigan from 23235

    Posted on 6/4/2015 3:42:23 PM

    Can you connect more than one bluetooth device at a time? I just purchased a NuviCam and would like to use the advanced GPS features but would prefer to use a blutooth stereo for my calls and maybe streaming music? Is this possible?

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 6/5/2015 7:59:05 AM

    Jim, the features that the all-in-one nuviCam gives you via Bluetooth are the same that a car stereo would give you. You would have to choose whether you are going to pair your smartphone with the car stereo or the nuviCam, since they're both offering the same basic feature — giving you hands-free calling functionality (or music streaming, although you'd probably prefer to direct your music through your car speakers rather than through the nuviCam speaker). You can't split the Bluetooth signal output of your phone to two different devices at once (at least, not yet). However, if you're still interested in a new car stereo, a great start is to use our vehicle selector to confirm which stereos fit your car.

  • terry wildeman from United States

    Posted on 6/16/2015 10:03:31 AM

    I bought a pioneer avh-x7700 and really like it but I can't make a USB drive display in the USB socket. Pioneer told me study what its compatible with and I tried settings in my computer and have bought several USB drives and only audio shows up. What do I have to do just to make a 64 gig stick with 20 movies and 100 cds or so play so I can tuck the USB up under the dash and have the cord availabile for future upgrades. By the way it did work to get the 3.1 upgrade that also helped the codec problem. Thank You T

  • Robert Ferency-Viars from Crutchfield

    Posted on 6/17/2015 11:54:32 AM

    Terry, I don't have a sure-fire solution for you, but I do see in our information that the stereo might be limited to a 32 GB thumb drive. You've probably already tried a smaller drive, but if not, it's something. Similarly, there are often limits to the number files and folders you can have on the drive. So try smaller drives with smaller libraries. If you purchased the Pioneer from us, give us a call and our tech support team might be able to help you troubleshoot further. Good luck.

  • Michael

    Posted on 6/26/2015 11:52:11 AM

    very clear informative article.

  • Joe from oregon

    Posted on 7/3/2015 2:29:45 PM

    Just purchased a Clarion Marine Stereo CMS2 and it will not pair Bluetooth with my iPhone 4 or 5s. Just doesn't recognize either one.

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 7/6/2015 8:39:56 AM

    Joe, if you bought your gear from Crutchfield, you can call Tech Support for free help troubleshooting your system. If you purchased your equipment elsewhere, you can still get expert Crutchfield Tech Support - 90 days-worth for only $30. Check out our tech support page for details. Alternatively, you could give Clarion tech support a call at 1-800-GO-CLARION.

  • David Cross from Berry Creek CA

    Posted on 7/19/2015 7:54:56 PM

    I am having problems with blue tooth putting addresses into the radio. I have a Samsung GalaxyS4 smartphone. How do I program contacts into my radio? I have the JVC KW-V 21 BT Radio. Please try to write the info for what I need to do? Or should I take it back to Best Buy to have them trouble shoot the problem?

  • Ken Nail from Crutchfield

    Posted on 7/20/2015 8:48:25 AM

    Hey David, sorry about the snag you're running into with your phone's addresses. Although you purchased your equipment elsewhere, you can still get expert Crutchfield Tech Support - 90 days-worth for only $30. Check out our tech support page for details.

  • ROWENA from CCLEARLAKE,CA

    Posted on 8/2/2015 4:57:04 PM

    I just had this Pioneer HD Radio, installed in my 2015 chevy Malibu LS, because I wanted SiriusXM this model did not come with it. My husband set his iPhone up on it and now I do not know if the it will except all my numbers.

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 8/3/2015 2:19:31 PM

    Rowena, if your new Pioneer stereo is Bluetooth compatible, more than likely it can be paired with several phones (although not at once -- typically one takes primary position). So, you should be able to access your phone contacts when your phone is paired. In regards to satellite radio, if your stereo is "SiriusXM-Ready," you can install this tuner in order to receive that service.

  • jorge from ny

    Posted on 8/11/2015 7:46:35 AM

    Can this player sopport satelite radio ( uplander wheel control)

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 8/11/2015 9:37:44 AM

    Jorge, here's a list of stereos that are "SiriusXM-ready" which means you'll need an add-on SiriusXM tuner as well as a subscription.

  • Alan Williams from Portland, OR

    Posted on 9/3/2015 8:07:07 PM

    how do I obtain a pairing code to facilitate linking or syncing my Jensen vx7022 with my i phone?

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 9/4/2015 1:40:16 PM

    Alan, according to the manual, the factory default pairing code is "5309".

  • julio from laredo

    Posted on 9/9/2015 5:30:30 PM

    Is this stereoPioneer MVH-X380BT (2015 Model) compatible with an iphone 6(Bluetooth) for streaming music

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 9/10/2015 1:09:38 PM

    Julio, yes, it is!

  • Mike

    Posted on 11/30/2015 4:58:23 PM

    So what does aptX mean?? Nowhere in this whole article??

  • Ken Nail from Crutchfield

    Posted on 12/1/2015 8:10:32 AM

    Mike -- thanks for your question about aptX -- it's a good one. Strictly speaking, aptX isn't a Bluetooth protocol, in that it doesn't have any control or display functions. But if you care about sound quality, you may be interested. Simply put, aptX allows near CD-quality audio streaming between aptX enabled devices, a step up from the audio-streaming quality of most Bluetooth devices. If you'd like to know more about aptX, Qualcomm Technologies (the owner of the technology) has a very good website that explains the basics. You can find it at: www.aptx.com.

  • Perry from Glennville

    Posted on 12/27/2015 8:54:37 PM

    I can't get my iPhone 6 to pair with the Jensen heavy duty radio that has the A2DP the phone will find the radio but the radio just says pairing the whole time.

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 12/28/2015 8:42:53 AM

    Bluetooth issues are not uncommon with the iPhone 6. If you own an Android device or have one available to you, it would be worth pairing it with your Jensen to see if the same problem arises. If it does, then it could be the Jensen that is faulty. If it doesn't, it may be your iPhone. Check for the latest iOS update. Follow the instructions for pairing provided in the Jensen manual. If that doesn't improve things, you may have the best luck by making sure that your iPhone is "awake" to pair before you start your car. Toggling Bluetooth on your iPhone off and then on might also help. Also, is it possible that another device, besides your iPhone, has been paired with the Jensen at some point and is a default device? It may be bumping the iPhone off. Hopefully this helps you pinpoint the source of the problem. Good luck!

  • Drew from New York

    Posted on 1/22/2016 1:52:24 PM

    My iPhone 5 is paired with a Kenwood KDC-BT645U.. However it does not wirelessly stream music. In this case, does that mean this head unit does not have A2DP?

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 1/24/2016 5:03:00 PM

    Drew, if you bought your gear from Crutchfield, you can call Tech Support for free help troubleshooting your system. If you purchased your equipment elsewhere, it would be worth checking Kenwood's site and/or their tech support to see if there is a firmware update that would allow the pairing. We no longer carry this receiver, but at the time, the receiver was only compatible with iPhone models up to 4. Toggling Bluetooth on your iPhone off and then on might also help when you pair next time. Worth a shot.

  • Derek quinones from Fremont

    Posted on 2/28/2016 10:21:08 PM

    What do I need so I can play pandora from my iPhone 5 on my alpine cda-117?

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 2/29/2016 9:25:11 AM

    Derek, that stereo doesn't appear to have direct compatibility with your phone. So, you'll need to install a Bluetooth adapter, an AUX input, or new stereo equipped with both in your vehicle. We can help you with any of those choices. Just give us a call.

  • Ken from Columbia

    Posted on 3/4/2016 3:32:12 PM

    Is the Pioneer MVH-X370BT compatible with the Samsung Galaxy S4 for streaming music and receiving phone calls?

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 3/8/2016 8:36:10 AM

    Ken, your Pioneer MVH-X370BT is a Bluetooth 3.0 stereo and your phone is a Bluetooth 4.0 device. There may be some newer features of Bluetooth 4.0 that you can't use with your Pioneer stereo, but you will be able to make phone calls and stream music.

  • Justin

    Posted on 3/14/2016 8:49:58 PM

    With my Motorola Bluetooth headset I can hit the phone button and activate Google Now to use any voice commands through the microphone. Will a higher end Kenwood single din (KDC-BT958HD) or Alpine do this when I hit the phone button? I need this voice pass through functionality to sent texts, make calls, and start navigation with voice commands.

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 3/15/2016 1:34:22 PM

    Justin, you'll need to confirm the Bluetooth protocols of your phone, but if it's a recent model, you will likely have this level of functionality. To answer your question directly: yes, think of your car audio system as a very large version of your headset. A Bluetooth-equipped receiver will interface with voice command features on your phone. An external mic wired to the receiver will hear your commands, and you'll hear resulting audio from the phone through your car speakers. The same is true for hands-free calling.

  • Mike from Murrells Inlet

    Posted on 3/29/2016 1:33:38 AM

    Does the Kenwood excelon ddx5901hd support the iPhone 6s?

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 3/31/2016 8:41:17 AM

    Mike, you'll have hands-free calling and audio streaming capability via Bluetooth with your iPhone 6. Since the DDX5901HD predated the iPhone 6, other features may not be guaranteed. However, two firmware updates are available for this model and may correct this. Check out Kenwood's site for details.

  • Adam Ferguson from Kannapolis

    Posted on 5/17/2016 12:44:26 AM

    I purchased a JVC KW-V51BT and paid to have it professionally installed in my 2004 Silverado 2500hd. The radio and cd player functions perfectly with great sound. However, I'm having an issue with Bluetooth. My phone (Samsung Galaxy S5 - Verizon) pairs with the JVC just fin , but I get no audio output in Bluetooth. For instance when using Pandora, I can see the song playing on the screen and it shows the artist/title/time/etc. But absolutely no audio. Same thing when making phone calls. Shows the caller/phone number/etc but still no audio. Even when I connect by Mhl/HDMI cable, I have visuals but no sound (not surprising since you have to have Bluetooth for sound even with cables connected) . I wondered if my phone wasn't compatible but I see videos all over YouTube with people using the Samsung Galaxy S5 with the JVC KW-V51BT. JVC tech support has been absolutely no help. I even returned my JVC in exchange for another and have the same exact issue.what else can i do?

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 5/19/2016 12:28:31 PM

    Adam, yikes, that sounds frustrating. By now I'm sure you've tried adjusting the Bluetooth volume in your phone settings and in the stereo's Bluetooth settings, but if you haven't, that's the first thing to do. Also, keep in mind that if you bought your gear from Crutchfield, you can call Tech Support for free help troubleshooting your system. If you purchased your equipment elsewhere, you can still get expert Crutchfield Tech Support - 90 days-worth for only $30. Check out our tech support page for details.

  • Nick from Cincinnati

    Posted on 6/25/2016 2:49:35 PM

    Is there a noticeable difference between units that have aptX Bluetooth and those that do not?

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 6/27/2016 9:24:55 AM

    Nick, given the option between aptX and standard Bluetooth streaming, I'd opt for aptX hands-down. You'll gain a more robust, detailed sound. In fact, we recently conducted a listening test with Crutchfield advisors and they were all impressed with the noticeable difference. You can find out more details about aptX in this article. All of that said, keep in mind that whatever device you're using as a music source must be aptX-equipped. You'll find a complete list of compatible devices here.

  • Gary from Aledo

    Posted on 7/2/2016 12:28:37 AM

    Just finished installing 2 pair of Alpine 6x8 speakers in my 1999 F150 I got from you guys and am now looking for a Pioneer or Alpine single Vin CD receiver with bluetooth compatability with an I-phone 4. I read the article but it was greek to me. Any suggestions would be appreciated. My perfect unit would have a front AUX and USB port as well as HD radio. Thanks!

  • Alexander Hrabe from Crutchfield

    Posted on 7/5/2016 9:19:53 AM

    Gary, I've passed your question along to our sales team. An advisor will contact you soon to help you find the right radio for your F-150.