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Turntable buying guide

How to choose the right vinyl record player


Dave Bar

Dave Bar has worked for Crutchfield since 1981. After a brief 23 year stint in the sales department, he now writes about home audio gear and camera equipment for Crutchfield's catalog and website. Dave has been hooked on electronics ever since putting together a 5-tube AM radio in his high school shop class, and still enjoys tinkering with stereos in his spare time. His interests include gardening, cooking, fishing, photography, and music.

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With all of the digital music formats introduced over the past few decades to make our listening experience more convenient, and many would argue better, the venerable vinyl record has never completely gone away.



Some might say it’s the romance and ritual of sliding an album out of its sleeve, placing it gently on the platter, lowering the tonearm, and experiencing the soft thump as the needle lands in the groove just before the music starts. Maybe it’s the fact that album art is way cooler than a digital .zip file. Quite possibly it’s the thrill of discovering musical treasure on the cheap at a flea market — great stuff that you’ll never find on CD or a digital download. Or even experiencing just how amazing the latest release of one of your favorite artists sounds on a pristine, newly minted 200 gram LP.

Maybe it’s a little of all these things. 

Certainly there is nostalgia about vinyl, but it is not just about dusting off records, it’s also about listening to music in an entirely different way. A commitment of sorts that’s more involving. Something that requires our attention in a way that makes digital listening seem a bit casual. Not to mention the fact that many studios mix albums differently for digital and analog release, and some could rightly argue that vinyl actually brings you closer to what the band or artists intended for you to hear.

But whether you grew up spinning albums and have an extensive collection, or you're just discovering the warm, analog sound that records can provide, one thing's for sure — you'll need a good turntable to play them on.

What is a turntable?

At their most basic level, turntables are relatively simple devices designed to smoothly spin vinyl LPs at a constant rate of speed. But how precisely a turntable performs that task largely determines how faithfully it can reproduce your music, and to a great extent, how much it might cost.

Today's turntables offer a wide variety of features to give you what you need to enjoy your LP collection. Below, we've outlined some common features and options that you'll come across when you shop, and what they mean so you can decide which ones best fit your needs. [Shop for turntables.] 

Music Hall MMF51SE turntable

Separate top and bottom chassis platforms help isolate the Music Hall MMF-5.1SE's motor from its platter and tonearm. This performance-focused design keeps vibration to a minimum for near-silent operation and superior sound quality.

Belt drive vs. direct drive

One of the most basic design differences is the way in which a turntable spins the platter. Most players accomplish this in one of two ways: belt drive or direct drive.

A belt drive turntable's platter rests on top of a bearing as it rotates, with the motor mounted off to the side. The platter connects to the motor that spins it by an elastic belt. The belt also acts as a shock absorber to prevent the noise and vibration generated by the motor from reaching the platter. Isolating the platter from the motor in this way results in less noise being transmitted to the tonearm and out through your audio system.

Direct drive models place the platter directly on the shaft of the turntable's motor, so it requires no belt to spin your records. This design offers highly consistent speed for accurate sound with reduced wow and flutter. DJs like direct drive turntables because they let you spin the platter backwards to create special sound effects, and because their relatively simple design offers great reliability.

Manual versus automatic operation

Turntables that feature automatic operation are the most convenient to use. Simply place your album on the platter and push a button. The turntable will lift the tonearm, move it over the record's lead-in groove, and begin playing. At the end of the album, the turntable automatically returns the tonearm to its original position and shuts itself off.

Manual 'tables, on the other hand, require that you lift the tonearm by hand, place it in the grooves of the record, and shut it off yourself at the end of play. To assist with this process, most turntables have a cueing lever or manual lifter mechanism that safely suspends the tonearm above the record, then gently lowers the needle into the grooves. This allows you to more easily begin playback wherever you want, just in case you'd like to skip to a song in the middle of a side.

So which type of turntable will work best for you? If you're looking to push the sonic envelope in a higher-end system, a manual model might be the ticket. Many audiophiles feel that the simpler design of a manual turntable provides greater precision and sonic accuracy. Of course, if you want the most convenient operation or if your hands aren't the steadiest, an automatic player is probably a wise choice.

Phono preamp — internal or external

The tiny voltages generated by a turntable's needle as it glides through the grooves of a record need to be amplified many times before they can be heard as music through your speakers. At one time, most audio systems came with the necessary circuitry for this amplification process. But many of today's receivers lack the inputs required to connect a turntable directly. If your receiver has no phono input, you'll need to choose a turntable with a built-in phono preamp, or add an optional external preamp to your system. Built-in phono preamps offer the simplest, most cost-effective option, but an outboard preamp may offer better sound quality. [Shop for phono preamps.]

USB interface

Turntables with a USB connection make a great choice for transferring your record collection to a computer for storage and playback. Some plug into your PC, while others can record directly to a USB thumb drive. Most also come supplied with software to help you edit and organize your music as you record it. For more info, check out our article about converting your LP collection to CDs and MP3s.


A phono cartridge is a small bundle of magnets and wires enclosed in a housing that mounts to the end of your turntable's tonearm. Its needle, or stylus, traces the grooves pressed into the surface of your albums. While this may seem like a simple process, the precision with which this device does its job affects the sound quality of vinyl playback perhaps more than any other component.

Sumiko Pearl cartridge

This Sumiko Pearl cartridge makes a great-sounding upgrade when it's time to replace your existing one.

The cartridge supplied with most turntables provides adequate performance for the casual listener, but serious music lovers should probably consider upgrading to a better model. Most cartridges, or at least their needles, should be replaced approximately every 500 to 1000 hours of play time — this is also a good time to upgrade. Better cartridges tend to last longer, sound better, and produce less wear on the grooves of your records.

Cartridges come in two basic flavors: moving magnet and moving coil. Moving magnet models create a music signal (voltage) when the needle riding in the grooves of your record nudges a tiny tube (the cantilever) with a magnet attached that’s moving inside a field of fixed wire coils. A tiny electric generator! With moving coil cartridges, it’s just the opposite — a coil of wire moves around inside a group of fixed magnets to create the music signal.

Moving magnet cartridges are the most popular because of their relatively low cost, good performance for the price, and compatibility with the vast majority of amplifiers and receivers. On the other hand, moving-coil cartridges have long been prized by audiophiles for their exceptionally clear, spacious sound. Compared to moving magnet designs, moving coils have less moving mass. That allows the stylus to track each record's grooves more accurately, yielding greater sonic detail and transparency. But MC designs can be fussier to use, frequently generating lower voltage levels that require specialized preamps and requiring re-tipping with a new needle by the factory instead of being user-replaceable. Still, many feel it’s worth the extra trouble and expense.

Other points to consider

On most turntables, you'll also see certain specs and features that can give you additional information about their performance and capabilities.

Platter weight
Not all manufacturers provide this specification, but the general rule of thumb is: The heavier the better. A platter with more mass tends to help keep the speed from varying and isolates the record from motor vibration for quieter playback. You can also buy platter mats that further isolate noise. Some turntables even offer an upgrade path by allowing you to replace its existing platter with a higher-quality one.

Wow and flutter (speed variation)
This spec tells you how accurately the turntable spins the platter. Any deviation in record speed can affect sound quality by changing the pitch of the music or causing an audible wavering effect that detracts from the listening experience. A lower number is better here, ideally below 0.25%.

Signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio
Some manufacturers provide this spec to give you a better idea just how much background noise (in decibels) to expect from the turntable for any given music signal level. A higher number is better here because you want a lot more music signal than noise. Look for something above 70dB.

Playback speeds
Be sure to look for a turntable that provides the proper rotation speed for the records you want to play. Most turntables give you 33-1/3 and 45 RPM capability. But if you have a collection of 78 RPM records that you want to play, pay careful attention to the numbers, since most new turntables lack this speed. Also, if you do purchase a 'table for spinning 78s, make sure you get a specialized cartridge or stylus that's equipped to handle the wider grooves of these increasingly rare records.

Last updated May 19, 2016
  • Jose Furtado from Goa, India

    Posted on 7/4/2015 12:50:32 AM

    What about THORENS Turntables? Appreciate to recieve your opinion, advice rtegarding Thorens turntables, which I am given to understand are of a very good and long lasting quality

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 7/7/2015 9:47:07 AM

    Jose, I hear Thorens 'tables are quite nice. I haven't tried one personally, but people I know think very highly of them.

  • Jeff Stone from United States

    Posted on 7/15/2015 10:04:32 PM

    Regarding questions about Thorens turntables; yes they are quite nice. Thorens has always offered a good range of turntables from entry-level to very high end, and you can purchase a used Thorens such as the TD-165 for under $200. If you start with a turntable such as the TD-160, there are numerous upgrades available that will bring that 160 into the world of high end audio... and you can make additions one at a time.

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 7/16/2015 9:36:36 AM

    Good thoughts, Jeff. Finding a primo used 'table can certainly be a good way to get into the hobby while saving $$$. The one thing I would caution potential buyers of used turntables to be aware of is, condition. Like any mechanical component with moving parts (think used cars!), turntables are subject to wear and tear. And they tend to be relatively delicate instruments. A used 'table that's had a hard life may require more repairs and refitting (new cartridge, new belt, motor, etc.) than they're worth. Be sure to keep your eyes open and your emotions in check.

  • Carla Lantz from West Chester

    Posted on 8/5/2015 2:42:26 PM

    Thank you for the article. The more I read the more questions I have. I am so glad I have kept my vinyl through the years! I do have a huge collection and plan on letting some go as it is time for me to down size which brings me to my question. Before I sell I want to ensure the playing quality. For the obscure and near mint 45's I will use our Denon turntable, but for the others I am looking for a portable turntable. I am getting on in age and can not stand for long lengths of time to use the Denon or repetitively get up and down to play the 45's. (I have close to 700-800 45's.) I do not want a portable that will harm the grooves/quality. It would be nice if it had USB capability but it isn't imperative. Can you recommend a turntable for me?

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 8/7/2015 9:22:07 AM

    Carla, we sent your question to our sales team for the best answer. They'll be contacting you via email soon. For immediate help, you can contact them via phone or chat.

  • Charles Westbrook from Houston

    Posted on 8/17/2015 12:33:16 AM

    I have owned a few good turntables while stationed in Germany (during the dark ages) but have progressed to CD, DVD, and Blu-Ray since them. Nostalgia over them is simple just that, not better sounding or clearer music. No matter how well you maintain your records, try to keep dust of them, dust them before use, and even uses expensive click/pop noise reduction hardware/sofware; playback WILL ALWAYS be companied by clicks and pops. The only reason for them is when playing old records not available on CDS. That is the only time I use my ancient artifact call a turntable. Ex. USAF electronics technician who worked on microwave and tropospheric scatter communications, and ground nav-aids equipment during the 60 and 70s.. Also have a degree In computer science and worked in that field for 20+ years. Have always had leading age home audio equipment from the early days of synthetic surround sound, to pro-logic, to AC3+. Never go backwards!

  • AM Ruud from Memphis

    Posted on 9/4/2015 10:16:31 PM

    What about laser pickups instead of needles? There's a lot of old vinyl out there that may not survive a needle used on it now.

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 9/7/2015 9:44:58 AM

    They do exist, but they're kind of pricey. Check it out...

  • David from Huntsville, AL

    Posted on 10/3/2015 6:02:49 PM

    What active speakers would you suggest? Looking to buy a turntable for my daughter's room.

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 10/5/2015 9:31:53 AM

    David, I sent your question to our advisors for the best answer. They'll be contacting you via email soon. For immediate help, you can contact them via phone or chat.

  • David from Huntsville, AL

    Posted on 10/5/2015 5:11:34 PM


  • Maq

    Posted on 10/23/2015 10:13:54 PM

    Should I use an external phono pre-amp or a receiver for my Technica LP120?

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 10/25/2015 9:20:05 PM

    Maq, I'm going to assume you have an audio-technica LP120-USB. If that's the case, then your turntable has a built-in phono preamp, so no external device is required. However, to answer your question: Yes, I do think you should use an external phono preamp for your turntable. The simple reason is sound quality. Dedicated external phono preamps almost always sound better (oftentimes VASTLY better) than the ones built into a turntable or even most receivers.

  • kathryn

    Posted on 11/20/2015 5:16:39 PM

    I want to invest in a great quality turning table but I want to start off with a -not so- expensive one. What is your opinion on the Crosley cruiser Turntables? Is it decent to purchase?

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 11/23/2015 11:00:31 AM

    Kathryn, As much as I'd love to see you start enjoying vinyl right away, my honest opinion would be to wait and save up your money until you can invest in a turntable that will really do justice to your albums and your music.

  • Jay from Los Angeles

    Posted on 1/8/2016 2:11:21 PM

    Hi Dave, not sure if you're still screening these comments, but wanted to know your suggestions for my first record player. My priority is playing the older 78's and I would like sound quality to be the highest priority. I don't need the bells and whistles of recording onto other devices. Also, since this is my first foray into this realm, I'm not sure exactly which "pieces" I'll need...turntable, pre-amp (if i have an external pre-amp, do I still need a receiver?), speakers. I'd love any advice and model suggestions you might have. Thanks in advance!

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 1/8/2016 4:30:31 PM

    Hi Jay. Yep, I'm still the designated driver for turntable stuff. Since sound quality is your highest priority, but this is your first turntable rodeo, I'm going to recommend a mid-range setup that you can grow into. First, I would get the Pro-Ject Debut Carbon (DC) turntable. You'll then need Pro-Ject's 78rpm Pulley Set for proper playback speed. (I'm sorry to say we don't sell it, but it's out there.) You'll also need a dedicated cartridge/stylus to play those old shellac 78s. I would recommend the Ortofon 2M 78, which can also be easily mounted on the turntable in place of the Ortofon 2M red that comes with it. (We don't carry it either, but they're easily obtainable.)

    As far as amplification and speakers are concerned, at the very least you'll need a receiver or integrated amplifier with a built-in phono preamp to work with the turntable...or...a receiver or integrated amp that offers line-level input and a separate phono preamp. Separate phono preamps frequently sound better than built-in ones. As far as speakers go, there are many good choices. Please give us a call for suggestions.

  • Mark Seidl from Upstate NY

    Posted on 1/10/2016 2:46:16 PM

    Hi--can a turntable, like a CD player, be plugged into a Sonos system? If not, is there an easy way to add multiroom capability to a system that includes a turntable? Thanks!

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 1/11/2016 12:30:47 PM

    Hi, Mark. You can definitely use a Sonos system with a turntable to stream music around the house to other networked Sonos players. The two main requirements are: the turntable must have a line-level output connection (that means it has to have either a built-in or separate outboard phono preamp), and there must be a Sonos PLAY:5, CONNECT, or CONNECT:AMP in the system. These three models have the analog stereo input jacks necessary for plugging in the turntable. Now you're ready to rock!

  • Emily from Tulsa

    Posted on 1/15/2016 7:25:06 PM

    Can I double up on pre-amps? My receiver has a phono input, so I know I don't need one. But will the sound quality greatly improve with an additional pre-amp (either external or built into the record player)? My receiver is an older Elderbrock MCS 3260. Looking to buy a brand new turntable, as of now I've only used older models. Any recommendations? Leaning towards a Denon. Thanks!

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 1/18/2016 10:43:57 AM

    Emily, You never want more than one phono preamp active in the system at the same time (this really is a case where more is definitely not better). Since both Denon turntables that we sell have the ability to bypass (or switch off) their internal preamps, you could elect to use the phono input on your receiver, if you wish. Conversely, you could use the turntable's built-in preamp and an auxiliary line input on your receiver. One could potentially sound better than the other. In my experience, dedicated external phono preamps usually sound best. Denon's a good choice (with lots of great reviews), and especially nice if you're looking for an automatic turntable. Otherwise, I'm partial to the Pro-Ject Carbon DC for its sonic performance and versatility.

  • Sandy Vera from Oklahoma City

    Posted on 2/4/2016 9:26:52 PM

    Hi, I wanted to know your opinion about my two choices for my first record player. The 1st one is: Turntable: Pro-Ject Debut Carbon (DC), Phono Pre-Amp: Behringer PP400 and Speakers: Audioengine A2+, (Not sure about the speakers) I think I might need to change the cartridge as well but not sure which one will be the best option. The 2nd one: Turntable: Audio-Technica AT-LP120-USB Direct-Drive Professional Turntable, Integrated Amp (w/ phono stage): Marantz PM5004 Integrated Stereo Amplifier and not sure about the speakers here either. I woulld appreciate your help!

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 2/5/2016 10:21:45 AM

    Sandy, these are both good possibilities. For sheer sound quality, I think the Pro-Ject would be way ahead of the game. It comes with a decent cartridge, but is easily capable of supporting a better one (say, the Ortofon 2M Blue or even Bronze, for example). I sent your questions to our sales team for their advice. They'll be contacting you via email soon. For immediate help, you can contact them via phone or chat.

  • Dalia from Austin

    Posted on 2/10/2016 1:54:48 PM

    Dave, I have been reading different reviews and suggestions regarding turntables and external phono amps. This is by far the most helpful article I have come across! I was wondering if you could recommend a few affordable options for turntables without the built in phono amp. I have found a few external phono amp options that I can buy separately but still need to find the speakers/turn table.

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 2/10/2016 4:43:28 PM

    Hi Dalia, In the sub-$500 turntable category I'm a big fan of the Pro-Ject Essential II and Debut Carbon (DC). These models dispense with bells and whistles that add to the cost, but not the performance.

  • Bruce Lodge from Tuolumne, CA

    Posted on 3/2/2016 8:24:04 PM

    Dave, I have a huge vinyl collection acquired between the late 60's and the late 80's. As I transitioned to CD's I finally packed away my high end turntable in the mid 90's. It's been boxed and stored in the garage ever since. It seems I'm succumbing to nostalgia these days, finding myself anxious to breakout the old table and haul my record collection up to the living room and start enjoying the vinyl vibe once again. My questions... Is it reasonable to think the belt on the turntable has survived 20 years of inactivity? Should I expect some degree of degradation in the cartridge? Is it legit to think I could find a cartridge and a belt for a 30+ year old turntable? There used to be "stereo" shops in most every town where one could take a unit in for repair or buy replacement parts. Not so anymore, especially in small rural towns the likes of which I've lived in for some time. Your thoughts? Thanks, Bruce

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 3/3/2016 5:35:16 PM

    I'm certain you're not alone, Bruce. I believe a lot of folks are looking to resurrect their old turntables and wondering where the cost/benefit line should be drawn. My feelings are this: If you're sitting on a classic 'table like a Linn, Sota, VPI, Mission, high-end Thorens or Rega, etc., and everything seems to be functioning properly, it may well be worth your while to invest in a new belt and cartridge (yes, you'll almost certainly need both due to long-term deterioration of rubber or silicone elements, and don't forget a drop of good synthetic oil in the platter bearing for 'tables that can use it).

    On the other hand, if your 'table isn't functioning at all, or was of average or lesser quality to begin with (I mean no offense here, but spending $100-$200 dollars or more on a turntable that didn't cost that much to begin with just isn't a good investment), you would probably be better off buying a new turntable instead. You can often still find replacement parts at the manufacturers' websites, or online at turntable specialty shops.

  • Brian from Massillon

    Posted on 3/8/2016 6:38:54 PM

    I have a pro-ject debut carbon esprit sb dc hooked up to a marantz sr6009. I want to buy a tubed phono pre-amp but since the receiver I have already has phono inputs idk if it would make a difference in sound.

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 3/9/2016 11:08:10 AM

    Brian, Even though Marantz does as good a job as anyone with their receivers' built-in phono preamps, you can almost certainly count on a noticeable bump in sound quality with a dedicated outboard model. Tubes are especially engaging when employed for phono preamp duty. In my opinion, this would be a highly worthwhile step up.

  • Steve from Garland

    Posted on 4/17/2016 11:38:43 AM

    What's you opinion about connecting a turntable by USB as opposed to RCA cables? Is the sound from USB connection inferior? I have a Mac Mini computer, a Scarlett 2i2 interface, 2 - KRK Rokit5 speakers, and a Numark TTUSB turntable. The sound is good from this setup but I'm wanting a little bit higher end tt such as a Rega maybe. Now, if I get the Rega I don't think is has USB or a pre-amp so I would need to purchase a preamp and I suppose connect the turntable it to the Scarlett interface's line ins? Is this the best approach or is there a turntable that connects by USB that would be a better choice and has great sound? thanks

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 4/18/2016 2:23:11 PM

    Steve, all I can say is, it's complicated. Opinions vary greatly over USB sound quality. Much of what you get depends a great deal on the quality of the turntable itself (where the rubber meets the road, so to speak), as well as the quality of the phono preamp electronics, not to mention the analog-to-digital converters used. From a purist's standpoint (that's me!), I prefer to avoid the digital conversion process altogether, and go direct analog through a high-quality phono preamp into a receiver. Please give our advisors a call to discuss the possibilities in greater depth.

  • Dan from Macon, GA

    Posted on 4/28/2016 1:45:04 PM

    Hi Dave, I've never owned a turntable before, but I've recently gotten my hands on some vinyl and am on the hunt for my first player. Whatever I go with I'll be looking to integrate it into my home theater surround sound receiver, its one of the pioneer elite models. Just a few questions that I can't seem to find answers to. 1. Do they make a turntable with HDMI output? 2. Are there any front loading units, where all the moving parts are internal, sort of like a CD player? Thanks for your input.

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 4/28/2016 5:57:49 PM

    Hi, Dan. Welcome to the world of vinyl playback. As of this moment, I know of no turntables that feature HDMI output. As for front-loading turntables, I seem to recall some models from Pioneer, Sony, Sansui (and possibly others) back in the '70s and '80's, but nothing current. The fact that no one builds them anymore makes me wonder if they had reliability or performance issues. Anyway, give us a shout if you have any more questions, or need help picking one out.

  • Kyle Raine from Brisbane

    Posted on 5/3/2016 7:05:54 PM

    Hey Dave, Thank you so much for you're article it helped a lot! I have recently been thinking of getting into the world of vinyl but am not really sure where to start. I've heard a turntable is considerably better than a record player so I am going to buy a turntable. If I wanted to get a pretty decent turntable set (everything included) what price would I be looking at? I was aiming to spend at the most $600, but I'd be willing to pay more if it was worth it! Thanks again!

  • Dave Bar from Crutchfield

    Posted on 5/4/2016 9:41:30 AM

    Hey, Kyle. I'm glad you found my article helpful. Just for the record (no pun intended!), I'm not certain there's an actual difference between a "record player" and a "turntable", although I suppose one might think of a record player as being cheap and cheerful, while a turntable is a more serious piece of audio kit. The distinction, I believe, is primarily a mental one.

    Anyway, I will assume you're in Australia. Allowing for the exchange rate, it looks like your budget for a turntable is in the $450 (USD) range. There are lots of really good ones in that neighborhood. I would recommend checking out the Pro-Ject Debut Carbon DC or Music Hall MMF-2.3. Either of these models are highly capable, but unless you already have one, you'll also need a phono preamp with them, so you may have to budget another $100-$200 for that. Best of luck in your search.