About the Parrot ANAFI Ai
Breaking boundaries with 4G
The Parrot ANAFI Ai can access 4G networks for a strong, secure connection with virtually unlimited range.
Breaking boundaries with 4G
The Parrot ANAFI Ai is the world's first and only off-the-shelf robotic UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to use 4G cellular technology. This gives the drone a continuous connection to the internet and lets you confidently control it from an unlimited distance. With a waiver from the FAA, pilots can remotely operate the drone beyond line of sight from a safe location — making the ANAFI Ai ideal for emergency response or otherwise difficult or dangerous inspections.
The included Skycontroller 4 remote controller automatically switches between built-in dual-band Wi-Fi® and 4G. This feature saves data when you have a strong Wi-Fi signal and keeps your connection stable if that signal starts to drop.
The ANAFI Ai's embedded artificial intelligence allows it to perform automated photogrammetry flight missions with just a click — capturing accurate models of terrain and objects with photographic data. These photos are compiled together to create geometric representations of objects and surfaces in the surveyed area for highly accurate 2D or 3D reconstructions.
The drone's powerful 48-megapixel camera ensures these models are centimeter-level accurate, making it an ideal solution for aerial mapping and surveying. The ANAFI Ai can be used in a wide range of applications, from city-planning and natural resource management to real-time disaster site modeling.
The Skycontroller 4 has a built-in dock that accepts Apple® or Android™ tablets and smartphones up to eight inches. You can manually pilot the drone, or you can use preset flight plans like POI (points of interest) or waypoints. It can operate indoors without GPS, so you can fly the drone straight out of a window, then back inside seamlessly. Flying the drone is easy for new operators but provides additional flexibility for more experienced pilots.
The drones' stereoscopic cameras move independently of the main camera for omnidirectional obstacle detection. The drone automatically adjusts its flight path to navigate around and avoid obstacles.
Durable and powerful
The slick-looking ANAFI Ai is made to work in a wide variety of environments. It can operate in extreme cold and heat, from 14° to 104°F. It can also resist winds up to 31.3 miles per hour, and it's IP53-certified against dust and rain.
This drone is lightweight, and its wings fold to make it easily portable. You can launch it from the palm of your hand in just under a minute. Once it's in the sky, the drone flies fast, up to 38 miles per hour, and stays airborne for up to 32 minutes.
Parrot has been providing open-source SDKs (software development kits) since 2010, opening their software up to the drone community. The ANAFI Ai and the latest version of the FreeFlight app are both open-source, allowing developers to innovate custom apps, flight plans, and more. Code can be run directly on the drone, giving developers access to flight, sensors, connectivity — effectively all of the features of the drone.
The ANAFI Ai's security protocols are top-notch. The FreeFlight 7 app uses strong authentication for its 4G pairing to ensure your data is kept safe. Users can opt in to store their information anonymously in Parrot's secure servers in Europe. You can use virtually any smartphone to connect with Parrot's secured infrastructure without a separate subscription. If you've got a nano SIM card that can send data, you're good to go.
Parrot has also partnered with YesWeHack, a crowdsourced security platform powered by a large community of cybersecurity experts. The partnership's bug bounty program helps identify and correct potential vulnerabilities in their drones, web services, and apps.
- quadcopter with 48-megapixel Quad Bayer sensor camera and remote controller
- can connect to a 4G LTE network, allowing users to operate the drone at any distance (nano SIM card sold separately)
- continuous worldwide connection to the internet with in-flight data transfer
- real-time 12 Mbps video bitrate (low-latency 1080p streaming)
- Note: Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLos) operations require a waiver from the FAA
- embedded artificial intelligence allows automated photogrammetry flight missions
- provides accurate 2D and 3D models for mapping and surveying
- foldable, lightweight design makes it easy to carry to your launch destination
- can be deployed in just under a minute
- accurate flight positioning with GPS, GLONASS, and GALILEO
- operating temperature: 14° to 104°F
- resists winds up to 31.3 mph
- IP53-certified against dust and rain
- flight time: up to 32 minutes
- maximum speed: 38 mph
- 48-megapixel camera with 1/2" Quad Bayer CMOS sensor
- optical LD-ASPH (low dispersion aspheric) lens
- aperture: f/2.0
- focal length: 24mm (35mm equivalent)
- photo modes: single, bracketing, burst (10 fps), panorama (4 formats), time-lapse, GPS-lapse
- ISO range: 50 to 6400
- electronic shutter: 1/15 to 1/10,000 seconds
- digital zoom: 6X (lossless), 4X (1080p), 2X (4K UHD)
- 6-axis image stabilization
- mechanical: 3-axis (pitch, roll, yaw)
- electronic: 3-axis (pitch, roll, yaw)
- controllable gimbal tilt range: -90° to 90°
- HFOV (horizontal field of view):
- 73° (Wide)
- 69° (Wide with electronic stabilization)
- 65° (Rectilinear with electronic stabilization)
- 68° (Video)
- records video in P-Log format with highly detailed RAW files for professional editing
- open-source FreeFlight 7 app for iOS® and Android™
- compatible with iOS 12 and higher
- fly autonomously or via preset flight modes
- flight plan: POI (points of interest) and waypoints
- cameraman: automatically frames and tracks subjects
- vehicle: drone's flight adapts to the controller's location
- RTH (return to home) feature initiates automatically if the drone disconnects or runs low on battery
- drone can fly indoors without GPS, letting it seamlessly transition in and out of a building
- photogrammetry flight plans can be optimized and performed based on the land registry of a selected building with a single click
- accurate 2D/3D modeling: GSD of 0.18 inch/pixel at an altitude of 98.4 feet
- stereoscopic cameras mounted on a rotating gimbal provide obstacle detection
- -107° to 204° rotation
- range of sensors for precise environmental feedback
- barometer, magnetometer, vertical camera, Time of Flight (ToF)
- 2 x 6-axis IMU (inertial measurement unit)
- 2 x 3-axis accelerometers and gyroscopes
Software and security features:
- supports open-source SDK (software development kit) and industry-standard protocols
- run code directly on the drone and design autonomous flight missions that incorporate all of the drone's features
- develop professional-looking iOS and Android mobile apps for Parrot drones
- developers can test their work in a photorealistic simulated 3D environment using Unreal Engine
- FreeFlight 7 app allows users to anonymously store data on Parrot's secure servers in Europe
- compliant with the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
- users can delete all stored data with a single click
- embedded WISeKey Secure Element provides strong authentication for 4G pairing and protects sensitive data
- NIST FIPS140-2 Level 3 compliant and Common Criteria EAl5 Certified
Skycontroller 4 remote controller:
- built-in dual-band Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz/5 GHz)
- seamless automatic transition to 4G
- adjustable dock compatible with smartphones and tablets up to 8 inches
- charges connected smartphones and tablets
- 1080p HD live view
- two USB-C ports (1 charging, 1 data)
- micro-HDMI output for streaming video to another device
- IP5X dust resistant
General info and included accessories:
- includes traveling hard case
- includes 1 extra set of propeller blades
- includes 3 USB-C to USB-C cables and 1 USB-C to Lightning cable
- includes rechargeable battery
- 1 USB-C charging port (includes USB-PD fast charger)
- 12-5/8"W x 4-5/8"H x 17-5/16"D (unfolded); 11-15/16"W x 4-5/8"H x 5-1/8"D (folded)
- weight: 1.98 lbs.
- warranty: 1 year
- Our 60-day money-back guarantee
- Note: The FAA offers the most up-to-date information on safety tips, rules, and regulations for responsible drone use. Many drones need to be registered, and state and/or local laws may restrict their use in some areas.
- MFR # PF728331
What's in the box:
- Remote controller
- 4 Joysticks (2 pre-installed)
- Battery (pre-installed)
- AC power adapter/charger
- 4 Power plugs (US/AU/EU/UK)
- 8 Propellers (4 pre-installed)
- 7" Lightning to USB-C cable
- 7" USB-C cable
- Two 22" USB-C cables
- Carrying case
- Accessory pouch
- Gimbal protector (pre-installed)
- Flight Safety Guide
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More details on the Parrot ANAFI Ai
Obstacle-Avoidance (OA): The Parrot ANAFI Ai's uniquely designed obstacle-avoidance (OA) system detects obstacles in all directions, using stereo cameras to automatically avoid them. The drone's obstacle avoidance (OA) system relies on stereo cameras, located on each side of the main camera. When obstacles are detected, the ANAFI Ai automatically determines the best trajectory to pursue its mission. Make sure the lenses of the stereo cameras are always perfectly clean: you can use a drop of specialized (photo) lens cleaning liquid to ensure the cleanliness of the optics..
4G Radio Module: With 4G, the data link between the drone and the controller becomes more robust. Already widely and reliably deployed around the world, 4G offers long range transmission at low frequency bands of 700MHz - 900MHz. 4G allows the ANAFI Ai to transmit a video in 1080p with a very low latency (300 ms) without range limitation to its controller. The 4G connectivity avoids interferences and paves the way for real-time data transfer and Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLos) flight operations. The ANAFI Ai's 4G module supports more than 28 frequency bands, covering more than 98% of the frequencies deployed around the world.
- Automatic Network Switching: The quality and capacity of the 4G and Wi-Fi networks are measured every 100 ms to adapt the streaming to the network conditions. Combined with the routing algorithms, the connection between the drone and its controller is maintained even when the WiFi is strongly disrupted. Thus, when the effective throughput (goodput) of WiFi is lower than 1.5 MBps, the system automatically switches to 4G LTE. To limit mobile data consumption when the pilot is within range of the drone's WiFi network, the 4G to WiFi transition is also automatically performed, without video stream cut.
- Congestion Control Algorithm: The Congestion Control Algorithm allows the measurement of packet loss over the entire network loop and round trip time latancy in order to adapt the hroughput accordingly. The final objective of the algorithm is to maximize the available throughput while maintaining the lowest possible latency. This algorithm is implemented on each of the interfaces available on the drone, each one having its own parameters optimized according to the network. Thanks to the information provided by this algorithm, the link supervisor decides on the routing and the active interface.
- To connect via a 4G network, the ANAFI Ai requires a nano SIM card (sold separately) that is capable of sending data.
- The ANAFI Ai itself does not require a separate subscription and will use your current phone's 4G subscription (so data rates and fees will apply). Parrot provides its users a secured infrastructure that works with your smarphone device.
- ANAFI Ai connects to the 4G remote control in less than 30 seconds when the drone is not in WiFi range, and in less than 15 seconds when the drone is in WiFi range.
Dual Band WiFi: The Parrot ANAFI Ai features a robust 2.4GHz/5GHz dual-band WiFi (802.11n) module with a built-in smart interference avoidance system, plus four directional antennas with reflector (gain: 2.5 dBi/antenna). The drone determines the best antenna pair depending on its orientation and position in relation to the pilot's position. With a recombined gain of 3.5 +/-1.5 dBi in the horizontal plane of the drone, the radio gain of ANAFI Ai is strong homogeneous. The downward radiation of the antennas has been improved by +4 dB compared to ANAFI. The radio front end allows to push the power to the maximum at the foot of the antenna with a very good level of linearity and sensitivity (-94 dBm at 6.5 Mbs), allowing to reach the maximum power of the FCC limit.
- 802.11n Parameters: A subset of 802.11n WiFi protocol parameters was selected to optimize performance in the drone use cases: relatively low throughput, low latency, variability in reception levels due to drone speed, long range, presence of interferers. These parameters include aggregation, number of retries, MiMo technology (STBC), management frame datarate, and disconnection conditions.
- Flow Adaptation & Monitoring: The ANAFI Ai continuously monitors its connection status at 4Hz and can detect the presence of interference. This allows it to dynamically optimize the throughput and the size of the transmitted packets. It also alerts the pilot if he or she is in a particularly interference-laden environment, or if he or she is close to losing the signal.
- Smart Bandwidth Reduction: At the limit of its range and if the conditions allow it, the ANAFI Ai can switch to 10MHz bandwidth to improve its sensitivity by 3 dB and gain 40% in range.
Photogrammetry Flight Plans: Embedded Artificial Intelligence allows for photogrammetry-specific flight plans to be performed automatically, optimizing productivity, and saving time. You'll be able to generate optimized flights based on the land registry of the building selected in just one click using the Parrot FreeFlight 7 App.
- Grids: Simple grid photogrammetry flights are useful to create 2D maps. Simple grids can be precisely adapted to any shape, to match the borders of a field or a coastline, for example. Double grid photogrammetry flights are useful to create 3D maps or 3D models of square areas. Follow these steps to program and launch a double grid mapping flight.
- Orbit: Orbit photogrammetry flights are useful to model an isolated building or structure in 3D as it spins the aerial drone horizontally around your subject.
- 1-Click: 1-Click photogrammetry flights are designed to create the 3D model of a single building, with a single tap on the screen.
- POI/Waypoints: You can plan your flight route with POIs (points-of-interests) and waypoints on the map screen of your compatible mobile device's touchscreen, and then sit back and enjoy the scenery as the drone takes off for an automatic flight.
- CameraMan: This framing mode assistant allows you to automatically center your subject or object in the frame, while maintaining control of the drone's movements.
- Vehicle: The Vehicle mission enables authorized pilots to take off and control their drone from a moving vehicle (for example a platform-van or a boat), then to land it back safely on the moving vehicle (up to 17.5 mph).
- Touch&Fly: This auto-flight mode lets you explore your surroundings without piloting your drone, by simply pointing to positions (GPS coordinates or POIs) on the screen of your compatible mobile device running the FreeFlight 7 App.
Smart RTH (Return-to-Home): With the Smart RTH (Return-to-Home) feature, if the drone ever loses connection or if the battery life is low, it automatically returns to your current location or pre-programmed location. The drone keeps track of the amount of energy needed to return to its take-off position. It analyzes the distance already flown as well as the wind resistance encountered and compares these values with the remaining energy of the battery. When only a thin safety margin is left, the RTH function is automatically initiated (which can be canceled by the user).
Rechargeable Smart Battery: The Parrot ANAFI Ai boasts a 32-minute flight time on a single LiPo rechargeable battery (6800mAh). The included battery charger can fully recharge the smart battery in approximately 112 minutes.
Note: The rechargeable smart battery will need to be initially charged before flight.
Ultra-Compact & Foldable Design: The Parrot ANAFI Ai is compact and lightweight (1.98 bs). It also offers a unique folding design that makes it easy to carry. A carrying bag is included for the ANAFI Ai drone and its included accessories.
- Unfolded Dimensions: 19.125" (w) x 4.9375" (h) x 13.3125" (d)
- Folded Dimensions: 4.9375" (w) x 5.0625" (h) x 12.5625" (d)
Hard Carry Case: A very rugged hard carry case is provided to store, transport, and protect the Parrot ANAFI Ai drone, SkyController 4 rechargeable smart battery, battery charger, spare propellers, cables and other accessories.
Ultra HD Camera: The ANAFI Ai aerial drone is equipped with a state-of-the-art, Ultra-HD camera, which delivers astoundingly sharp motion and still pictures, through a 1/2" CMOS 48MP sensor.The 1/2" image sensor offers up to 14 EV of dynamic range to catch all the details, both in highlights and shadows. The lens of the camera includes low dispersion aspherical elements, that reduce chromatic aberrations and flare to guarantee optical excellence.
- 4K/60Hz Video: The integrated Ultra HD camera will record up to 4K/60 HDR (High Dyanamic Range) video MP4 (H.265) or MOV (H.264). By default, the ANAFI Ai will start recording as soon as the aerial drone takes off. Supported video resolutions include 4K (24/25/30/48/60 fps), 4K HDR (24/25/30 fps), P-Log 4K (24/25/30/48/50/60 fps), 1080p, (24/25/30/48/50/60/96/100/120 fps), 1080p HDR (24/25/30 fps), or P-Log 1080p (24/25/30/48/50/60/96/100/120 fps).
- 48MP Photos: The built-in Ultra HD camera can also capture up to 48MP still images in JPEG or DNG/RAW. Supported picture formats include Rectilinear (48MP or 12MP in JPEG), Wide (48MP or 12MP in JPEG or DNG/RAW), Panorama (32MP in JPEG), or HDR (12MP in JPEG).
6-Axis Hybrid Image Stabilization: The ANAFI Ai offers 6-axis hybrid image stablization with a 3-axis mechanical gimbal and a 3-axis electronic digital image stabilization system to ensure sha ensure sharp photos even in crosswinds of up to 12.7 m/s. ANAFI Ai's camera features a controllable gimbal (180° tilt range, from nadir to zenith) and a 6x zoom (4x lossless zoom for 1080p and 2x lossless zoom for 4K). The controllable gimbal tilt range (from -90° to +90°) gives you access to complex points of view.
Photo Modes: The ANAFI Ai offers a variety of photography modes to choose from through the FreeFlight 7 app on your compatible mobile device.
- Single: In Single mode, you can take simple, high quality shots in JPEG or Adobe DNG/RAW format.ma mode are also available.
- Burst: Burst mode will capture 10 photos in 1 second; perfect for shooting a fast scene.
- Bracketing: In this mode, you can photograph the same scene with different exposure values. Choose 3 photos (+/-1EV), 5 photos (+/-2EV), or 7 photos (+/-3EV).
- Time-Laps: Time-Lapse mode will take single shots at a regular time interval which can be set a 0.5 (12MP only), 1, 2, 4, 10, 30, and 60 seconds.
- GPS Lapse: The GPS Laps mode lets you capture photos at a specific distance interval which can be set a0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, or 200 meters.
- Panorama: In this mode, the drone automatically records a succession of shots and creates 360° Sphere, Vertical, Horizontal, or Super Widel panoramas.
Auto & Manual Camera Settings: The Parrot ANAFI Ai provides a variety of auto & manual camera adjustments so you get the best recorded photo or video image.
- Exposure Value (EV): The EV expresses the general darkness or lightness of a photo or video. At +0.0 (zero) EV, the ANAFI Ai automatically adapts the shutter speed and the ISO value to deliver a perfectly balanced photo or video (not too dark and not too light). You can also manually adjust the Exposure Value from -3EV to +3EV. You can also lock the general exposure of a view, to fine-tune the framing of a shot and keep the desired exposure.
- Shutter Speed (S): Shutter Speed refers to the time, in fraction of second, when the shutter stays open to capture a still picture; it is called exposure time. In Auto mode, the drone selects the best shutter speed and ISO value couple, in real time, depending on the scene and available light. In consequence, selecting a shutter speed (1/15s to 1/1000s) also deactivates the Auto ISO mode. As the f/2.0 aperture lens lets a lot of light in, even compared to most professional SLR lenses, the drone can achieve very fast "S" values and capture very fast action. It can also be used for slow shots, up to 1 second for the photo mode.
- ISO Value (ISO): The ISO value refers to the sensitivity of the sensor. The lower the ISO value, the lower the sensitivity of the sensor, and the lower the image noise (digital grain). Therefore, under good lighting conditions, such as sunny daylight outside shots, low ISO values should always be selected. The sensitivity of the sensor increases as the ISO value goes up, so you can capture low light interior scenes, or exterior shots at dusk or dawn, for example. ISO range is 50 to 6400.
- White Balance (WB): White Balance deals with the color temperature of the light. Cold lights make the whites look blue. Warm lights make the whites look yellow. By default, in Auto WB mode, the camera keeps the whites white, at all times: it adapts its WB value in real time. However, setting a defined WB value for an entire shot is especially useful for professional filming; stable WB facilitates the grading (color treatment) of videos.
- High Dynamic Range (HDR): HDR (high dynamic range) is another great way to enhance a video or a photo. The HDR option is available for videos (no lossless zoom limited to 4K/30fps / lossless zoom limited to 2x and 1080p/30fps) and 12MP photos.
- P-LOG: P-LOG Style makes images a little less contrasted and is ideal for video editing and processing.
microSD Card Slot: Video and photos are recorded and stored on a microSD, microSDHC, or microSDXC memory card (sold separately). The microSD card slot is located on the ANAFI Ai drone (not the controller).
Controller & App
SkyController 4 Remote: The included SkyController 7 works in conjunction with your compatible smartphone or tablet device and Parrot's FreeFlight 7 App. The SkyController 7 provides wireless connectivity, joystick & push-button control, as well as mobile device connection. The SkyController 7 provides 4G and WiFi wireless operation of the ANAFI Ai for unlimited distance. Your compatible smartphone or tablet device (up to 8.5" long when in landscape position) will attach to the SkyController 7 via its mobile device holder and plug into the SkyController via USB-C. The SkyController 7 is powered by a rechargeable 3350mAH/7.2V battery that can last between 2 hours and 3 hours (depends on connected mobile device).
Note: The SkyController's integrated mobile device holder can expand to fit up to a 8.5" long smartphone or table device (when in landscape orientation). You many need to remove your smarphone's or tablet's protective case.
Parrot FreeFlight 7 App: The Parrot FreeFlight 7 App (for Apple iOS / Android OS coming soon) allows complete control of the ANAFI Ai drone from your compatible smartphone or tablet device. The Parrot FreeFlight 7 app provides flight and camera control, as well as a live 1080p video fee and flight data. Firmware & software updates will also be done through the FreeFlight 7 App.
Secure Connection: Cybersecurity is at the core of this drone conceived for professionals: the link between the drone and the user’s device is secured by Parrot ANAFI Ai's embedded Secure Element offering each drone a unique ID. The Secure Element also assures the privacy of data transferred and protects the integrity of the drone software.
Dual USB-C Ports: The Parrot Skycontroller 4 Remote is outfitted with dual USB-C port. One USB-C port is used to connect your device that is running the Parrot FreeFlight 7App. The other USB-C port is used to charge the controller's built-in battery from the included AC power battery charger.
Micro-HDMI Output: The Parrot Skycontroller 4 Remote's micro-HDMI output can be used to connect an external video screen or VR goggles (sold separately) for live video feed. The external screen or VR goggles only display the live video fee and none of the additional flight information provided by Free Flight 7 App. A micro-HDMI cable is required and not included (sold separately).
Software Development Kit (SDK): With the launch of ANAFI Ai, Parrot expands its Software Development Kit (SDK) by opensourcing the th version of its FreeFlight ground control station application. Parrot’s industry-leading SDK facilitates the implementation of tailored end-to-end solutions for professionals from public safety, search & rescue to defense and inspection fields. Parrot platforms are built on industry standards (WIFI, RTP/RTSP, MAVLINK), making interoperability much easier.
- Air SDK: Air SDK provides a breakthrough technological architecture to run code directly on ANAFI Ai. Developers can program custom-designed autonomous flight missions by accessing all drone sensors, connectivity interfaces, and autopilot features.
- Ground SDK: Ground SDK allows developers to create iOS and Android mobile applications for Parrot drones. All the features of the drone (control, video, settings) are accessible.
- OpenFlight: OpenFlight is the open-source core of FreeFlight 7 application. Developers can focus on adding their own features and immediately get a professional-looking App ready to be published on the application stores.
- Sphinx: Sphinx enables developers to test their algorithm and flight strategy in a photorealistic 3D simulation environment running through Unreal Engine, with accurate physical interaction.
Note: Parrot keeps on expanding its mature software ecosystem: from enterprise drone platforms (Skyward, a Verizon Company / Measure, an AgEagle Company), flight logs services (DroneLogbook / Airdata), public safety programs (DroneSense) and advanced mission planning (QGroundControl, UgCS), to media and data cloud platforms (Survae), real time geospatial situational awareness (Rapid Imaging / Textron Systems), surveying and mapping (PIX4D).
Air SDK: Air SDK allows developers to access every drone sensor, camera, connectivity interface and autonomous feature. They can therefore customize the drone behavior to create Flight missions. Every Flight mission contains a set of basic behaviors or modes -
- Ground: behaviors while motors are stopped, such as sensors calibrations
- Take-off: various take-off strategies
- Hovering: holding a fixed point
- Flying: manual and autonomous flight functions
- Landing: various landing strategies
- Critical: when a critical condition is detected
PIX4D Software: With PIX4D, the market leader in photogrammetry software, Parrot has pushed the integration one step further. During the flight, ANAFI Ai sends the pictures to PIX4Dcloud directly. Computation starts when the drone lands so that professionals gain productivity by avoiding manual timeconsuming data transfer.
Cybersecurity: The Parrot ANAFI Ai embeds a WISeKey Secure Element which is NIST FIPS140-2 Level 3 compliant and Common Criteria EAL5+ certified. The ANAFI Ai's cybersecurity design performs cryptographic operations, stores and protects sensitive informationm protects the integrity of the embedded software, provides a unique identity to the drone for 4G pairing and strong authentication, plus features a unique digital signing of the pictures taken by the drone.
Note: Users have full control over their data. No data is shared by default without the user's express consent. ANAFI Ai is compliant with the European Union General Data Protection Regulation