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All about subwoofers

A comprehensive checklist and reference guide for putting a subwoofer in your vehicle

Buck Pomerantz was born and raised in Philadelphia. His parents bought their first television set when he was born. He figured out how to run it by the time he was two. Besides athletics, his formative interests included electronics, amateur radio, music, and stage crew work. He got his BA in writing from Brown University. Then he joined a rock 'n roll band as their soundman and moved to Charlottesville, Virginia. After that venture failed, he spent time in Boston, New Orleans, and Berkeley. He worked in a music store in Austin manufacturing, installing, repairing, and operating sound systems for recording studios, clubs, and bands. He moved back to Charlottesville, ran a little recording studio and finally joined Crutchfield as a copywriter. He has 2 grown children and 3 grandchildren, but after a good nap he can still rock out.

More from Buck Pomerantz

Subwoofer that doesn't fit

It's a good idea to plan out the system completely, before you buy the gear.

When planning a bass system, customers ask every day about where they should start. Doing it properly takes some planning and forethought, especially if you're starting small and intend to expand over time.

How big of a sub system will you need?

Estimate the power your subwoofer system may need in order for the bass to musically blend and balance well with your existing system. If you have:

  • A factory radio — you won't need more than 50 to 200 watts RMS of power for the bass.
  • An aftermarket receiver — you might want 200 to 300 watts RMS of power.
  • Amplified speakers with around 50 watts RMS per channel — 250 to 500 watts RMS is a good starting point.
  • A system with 100 watts RMS per channel — having at least 1,000 watts RMS, or more for the sub is not uncommon.

To learn more, you can watch our video on Car Amplifier Power.

Focal K2 Power 11" subwoofer

Focal K2 Power™ 27 KX 11" subwoofer

Choose a subwoofer and enclosure

The sound quality and volume of bass depends not only on the specific component sub you get, but also what style and size of enclosure it mounts in. For some background in what to look for in a subwoofer, see our Subwoofers FAQ. Then go to Subwoofer Enclosures article for help finding out which enclosure will work best for you. For further help in deciding which sub to get, you can look at our Subwoofer Shopping Guide or watch our How to Choose a Subwoofer video.

Choose an amplifier

Mono, 1-channel amplifiers are designed to work best with subwoofers and often feature filters and tone controls specifically made to handle bass. You will want an amp that can provide at least 75% or as much as 150% of the subwoofer's top RMS wattage rating.

To learn more about amps, check out our Car Amplifiers FAQ. For help in picking which amp to get, see our Car Amplifier Shopping Guide or watch our How to Choose an Amplifier video.

Subwoofer wiring diagram

Plan out the wiring scheme to be sure the sub and amp can work together

Subs come in different impedances, and in dual and single voice coil models, in order to work in a variety of systems. An amp puts out more power to a low impedance sub than to a higher impedance sub. So, to find out how much power an amp can deliver, you have to know how the sub will be wired. To make some sense of all this, you can refer to a couple of articles: Dual Voice Coil Subwoofers and Wiring Subwoofers — What's all this about Ohms?

You might need to adjust your choice of sub or amp, so they'll work together properly. Changing your set-up on paper is a lot less challenging than exchanging purchased gear. Check out the different ways subs get wired in our Subwoofer Wiring Diagrams. These diagrams can help you decide which method will work best for the gear you've chosen.

Sound Ordnance B-8PTD compact powered sub

Sound Ordnance B-8PTD compact powered sub

A powered subwoofer is an easier solution

For many people, a small, self-contained, powered subwoofer will provide more than enough bass for their system. After positioning the powered sub, all you need to add are power cables and signal wires. You can learn more by watching the Crutchfield video on Installing a Powered Subwoofer.

MTX Amplified ThunderForm

MTX ThunderForm custom-fit powered subwoofer for 2007-up Chevy Silverado and GMC Sierra Extended Cab

Vehicle-specific enclosures with subs

Instead of the usual "sub-in-a-box," you might want to consider a vehicle-specific enclosure. Made to fit your car or truck, this enclosure contains a high-quality sub and fits into a convenient spot in your  vehicle. Some enclosures even include a built-in amp, for the ultimate in stealth bass. You don't lose much (if any) space, the sub is perfectly matched to its enclosure, and it has a factory look that won't alert potential thieves to your expensive sound system. To see if there's a vehicle-specific enclosure for your car or truck, visit our vehicle selector.

Rockford Fosgate RFK4X

Rockford Fosgate RFK4X 4-gauge wiring kit

Amp power wire kits

It is absolutely essential for an amplifier to receive its full share of electricity through large power wires, in order to operate properly and safely. The wattage of the amplifier determines what the proper size power wires should be. Amplifier manufacturers usually recommend a particular power cable size for each of their amps. Or, you can use our Cable Gauge Chart to figure out the power cable size that's best for your system.

Amp wiring kits contain most of what you need to hook up your amp. Some kits even come with signal wires, the RCA patch cords that allow the signal to get from the receiver to the sub amp.

Fuses are for your safety

Always install the in-line power fuse near the battery. If something failed back by the amp, you don't want a live, high current wire stretched throughout your car and engine compartment, because it could possibly heat up and start a fire.

The signal wires

The music has to have a way to get from the receiver to your sub amp. If you have an aftermarket receiver, it probably has RCA outputs you can use. Plan on getting new, high-quality patch cables. If you have a receiver with no RCA outputs, you can tap into the existing factory speaker wires with new speaker wires, to use for a high-level input to your amp. The amp, of course, has to have a speaker-level input feature for this to work. To prevent noise, all signal wires should run through your vehicle as far away from any power cables as possible.

The speaker wires

If your sub system is going to put out more than 1,000 watts RMS, you can use 12-gauge speaker wire. But 16-gauge speaker wire works well for most installations. Take a hint and order twice as much as you think you need. You never know when a sub or amp's position will need adjusting and you'll be thankful you have the extra length.

And don't forget tools

There are some tools and connectors that will make your sub installation much easier. Take a look at what you might need in our video on Car Stereo Installation Tools.

Gather the gear

Before you start working, make sure you have everything you need. You'll want to gather your component sub(s), enclosure, speaker wire, amplifier, (or a powered sub), an amp wiring kit, signal cables, and any tools you think will come in handy.

Pioneer Stage 4 system

Pioneer Stage 4 system with two 10" subs

Now is the time to install it

To see how an amp installation is done, see our Amplifier Installation Guide, and watch our video on Installing a Car Amplifier. You can also check out the Subwoofer Installation Guide for more tips and suggestions.

Make sure you always disconnect the car battery's negative, ground cable before working on the electrical system. Also, make sure the fuse is out of the in-line fuse holder until the installation is complete. Only then should you re-connect the battery ground and install the fuse.

Test — does it turn on and off correctly?

Make sure all volumes and gains are set to their minimum, and make sure all filters are off or disengaged. The sub amp should come on when you turn on the receiver. If the amp stays on even after you turn off the ignition, then you need to go back and re-wire the remote turn-on lead correctly to a switched power source. An amp that's always on will drain your car's battery in a hurry.

Gain up

Turn the gain up until it distorts, then back it off until the sound is clean again.

Tune your sub

Properly setting the gain and the filters of your sub amp is crucial to getting good bass without causing damage. See Tuning Your Subs for the "by ear" method of tuning your system. Another method involves using test tones and a multimeter to set the amp's gain to a target output voltage. Our Test Tones article helps explain that.

A lot of people notice changes in a new subwoofer's tone after a few months of play. Whether this "breaking in" period really effects the sub or not, a second tuning, a few months after the first, will make your ears happy.

Don't blow it

There are two ways to blow a sub. The first way is to over-power it: constantly playing music at a power level well beyond what the voice coil can stand. Eventually, it burns up.

The other method of blowing a sub doesn't involve power, but distortion, often called "clipping." That crumbling, crackling, gritty, or hissing sound can destroy a subwoofer no matter what the volume. There're a couple reasons why. One is that during the flat parts of a clipped signal, although plenty of current flows through the voice coil, there's no movement, and hence no cooling. When that happens, the coil overheats.

Another reason is that severely clipped waveforms force the sub's coil and cone to try to move at infinite speed when changing direction. That can't happen, and either the cone or the coil dies. Under-powering is often the contributing factor in a blown sub because a distorted signal gets applied in an attempt to get more volume.

Don't stress your vehicle's electrical system

Capacitors should only be used if your lights dim a little on hard bass hits. For more information, see Capacitors FAQ. If your lights dim a lot whenever the music plays, then your sound system is overwhelming your vehicle's electrical system, and could damage the battery and alternator. Refer to the article entitled Car Lights Dim When the Music Plays for some suggestions on how to solve that problem.

Rock on, but be cool

If your car stereo can be heard a block away, that's impressive -- but it might not make the best first impression. Enjoy your music, and share it with those who'll appreciate it, but don't infringe on someone else's right to peace and quiet.

Speaking of sharing, send us some photos of your finished installation. Our Custom Car Showroom is a great place to show off your system, or find inspiration for your next car audio project.

Jared S's 2004 Chevrolet Cavalier

Jared S's 2004 Chevrolet Cavalier

  • Mounir Lopez from Taylor

    Posted on 8/10/2015 12:13:08 AM

    I got some dual subwoofers on my Pontiac g6 they sound great but I heard they aren't any good? Also does it drain a lot from the car battery?

  • Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    Posted on 8/10/2015 3:06:20 PM

    Mounir, It shouldn't matter what anyone thinks of your subwoofers as long as they sound good to you. A sound system will only drain your car's battery if you play music with the engine off. While the engine's running, all electrical needs are taken care of by the alternator.

  • Nicholas White from Hastings MN

    Posted on 9/11/2015 11:30:38 AM

    Ive worked with subwoofers of all shapes, sizes and brands. This article fails to mention to break a sub in before pounding the spit out of it. I've underpowered, overpowered and never blown a sub before. I currently am running 2 rockford punch 10"s on a 12.5watt rms amp in my truck. Yes I did just say 12 and a half watts. I've found that as long as you use a premium crossover (not one from an amp, like a physical crossover that hooks up between the amp and sub), you can underpower, and slightly overpower it over the peak power. I prefer Klipsch crossovers from their Synergy series of speakers. If you break a sub in before you pound it. It'll last longer, and it'll sound better too. Also if youre going to buy a premium brand sub, Rockford and JL are the best, Kicker and Kenwood is second, Pioneer and JBL are third. If you have the cash buy the Sundown Audio SA-8 subwoofer. You'll never regret it until you'redealing with broken windows on every car around you.

  • Dane from Perth

    Posted on 5/31/2016 11:23:51 AM

    Hi. I have a powered sub and am going to add it to my factory system which already includes an amplifier. Do I splice my sub cables to the amp input wires or the amp to speaker output wires?

  • Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    Posted on 6/1/2016 3:16:37 PM

    Dane, It depends on the vehicle, the factory amplifier, and the powered subwoofer you want to install. Many vehicles use digital signaling between the receiver and amp, so you can't use the amp's input signal for your sub's input. Most powered subwoofers feature high- or speaker-level inputs, so they can get their input signal from a vehicle's amplifier outputs or speaker wiring.

  • Matt from Lumberton

    Posted on 8/17/2016 10:16:29 AM

    I have always wanted to know why Bigger Amp Kits come with THICK 8g. or 4g. wire for the Power and Ground but then have a wimpy 12 or 14g Speaker Wire...? Why is this? Seems that the Speaker Wire Size should Match the Power Wire Size...

  • Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    Posted on 8/17/2016 12:30:45 PM

    Matt, That's a great question. The answer involves the effects of wire size on a circuit's voltage, current, and resistance described in the mathematics of Ohm's and Joule's Laws. Let's take as an example a 500 watts RMS Class D amplifier powering a 4-ohm subwoofer in a 12-volt DC system. (I'll do the math behind the scenes.) On the output side, a 500-watt output through a 4-ohm sub requires 44.7 AC volts pushing 11 amperes of current. For the input, an 80% efficient 500-watt amplifier will require 625 watts of 12-volt DC and draw 52 amperes of current. Thin wires have higher resistance and can carry less current than thick wires. If we tried passing 52 amperes through a thin 14-gauge wire, for instance, the wire would heat up, due to its resistance to the current flow, lose voltage for the same reason, and might even burn through. The same wire would have no problem, however, passing 11 amperes without any heating or voltage loss.

  • Scott

    Posted on 12/13/2016 9:41:23 AM

    I am looking to install a 2 ohm/300 watt RMS subwoofer in my jeep with an amp that pushes 350 watts at 2 ohms. Is that ok? Or would I be better off getting the 4 ohm/300 watt version of that subwoofer because at 4 ohms the amp puts out 250 watts RMS. And would one power set up sound better than the other? I know nothing about car audio so thank you for your thoughts.

  • Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    Posted on 12/13/2016 10:59:22 AM

    Scott, Does the subwoofer have a single voice coil (SVC) or dual voice coils (DVC)? It makes a difference in how they can get wired to an amplifier. If you want a question answered about a system, you must identify the equipment by brand names and model numbers. And, most people will think that 350 watts will sound better than 250 watts because it'll be louder.

  • noel from moses lake

    Posted on 3/5/2017 3:41:28 PM

    i have two rockford p2 12in will the amp rockford500x1d work

  • Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    Posted on 3/6/2017 12:16:10 PM

    Noel, Rockford Fosgate makes two versions of that sub, a DVC 4-ohm and DVC 2-ohm model, both rated for 400 watts RMS. If you have two DVC 4-ohm subs, you'd look for an amplifier that can put out between 600 and 1200 watts RMS at 1-ohm, like a Pioneer GM-D8601. If you have two DVC 2-ohm subs, you'd look for an amplifier that can put out between 600 and 1200 watts RMS at 2-ohms, like a Pioneer GM-D9601. That Rockford Fosgate amp is not a good match for those subs.

  • Shannon Coble from Denver pa

    Posted on 3/25/2017 6:34:13 AM

    I have a mtx audio 4001 and a kicker compR 12 is that amp enough power for my sub?

  • Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    Posted on 3/25/2017 3:55:17 PM

    Shannon, If your sub is the DVC 2-ohm model, you can hook it up to that amp and produce 200 watts RMS of bass. If it's the DVC 4-ohm model, it'll put out 400 watts RMS. The 500 watts RMS rated sub will take either wattage, whether that's loud enough is up to you.

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