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How to install a crossover

Running tweeters, speakers, and subs in an active system

Sound Ordnance P-65C component crossover

Passive Crossovers

Passive crossovers for component speaker systems are very simple to install. They each go between your amplifier and a speaker and do not require a power connection, a turn-on lead, or grounding. You connect the speaker wire coming from your amp to the crossover's input. Then the tweeter gets wired to the tweeter output, and the woofer to the woofer output. That's it. The most challenging part of installing a passive crossover may be where to mount it, but most component crossovers are small enough to fit inside your car door near the woofer's location.

Examples of in-line crossovers

Examples of in-line crossovers

There's another kind of passive crossover, called in-line crossovers, which go between your receiver and amp. They look like little cylinders with RCA connectors on each end and simply plug into your amplifier’s inputs. In-line crossovers each come set to a specific crossover frequency and can’t be adjusted. Another disadvantage of using them is that they react differently to different amplifiers, possibly changing their crossover points unpredictably.

Active Crossovers

Installing an active crossover requires a bit more work. You'll mount your crossover securely, preferably near the amplifiers; give it power, remote turn-on, and ground wiring, like the amps have; and get signal from the receiver and send it to the amps. Once you've done the work, however, you'll gain new control over your music, being able to tune your sound system so that all of the speakers can give you their best performance.

Finding the right spot

You'll want to put your crossover in a location that won't take up too much space in your vehicle, but is accessible enough for you to be able to make adjustments. Usually, you'll just make the initial adjustments to fine-tune the sound and then leave it. But sometimes, you may get into the mood to just tweak your system or give it a different sound for the day. You need to securely mount your crossover so it won't become a flying liability in the event of an auto accident.

Audio Control DQXS and  a Boston GT-50

Audio Control DQXS 4-way crossover with 6-channel EQ (left) getting mounted next to a Boston GT-50 5-channel amp

Do not bolt your crossover directly to metal — that's inviting noise problems, like ground loops which hum or buzz. You could use rubber grommets around the mounting screws to isolate the case. Or you could mount the crossover on a wooden board and attach that to the car body. Some people even mount their crossover and amps on the same board, for convenience. A crossover can actually go anywhere between the receiver and the amp, but most people mount theirs near their amp, making it easier for connections and for future system expansion.

Wiring for power

You'll need to provide 12-volt power from your car battery to operate the crossover just as you would to power your amp. The power and ground wiring for your crossover do not have to be the heavy-gauge stuff that you use for your amp — typically wire as thin as 18-gauge wire will be fine. A distribution block is a good way to get power for your crossover via the same main power cable as the amp uses. You'll also need a solid, noise-free grounding point — it's best to ground your crossover at the same place as your amp. Make sure the grounds get attached tightly to the metal chassis of your vehicle, with all the dirt and paint removed where contact is made.

As for the turn-on lead, you can usually tie it into the turn-on lead for your amps. However, a receiver's turn-on circuit has a limited capacity and could fail if there're three or more devices to be turned on. If that's the case, you'll need a relay, that'll get triggered by the turn-on circuit but get its 12-volt power from another source, like the fuse box. If you bought your crossover from Crutchfield and need help with such a relay network, you can call our tech support department for free advice (please have your invoice handy).

Signal wiring

You get the input for your crossover via RCA patch cables from your receiver. If your receiver doesn't have RCA outputs, you can use a crossover that accepts speaker-level signals for inputs. Or, you can get a line output converter to step the speaker-level signal down to preamp level. Lastly, you run more patch cables from the crossover outputs to the amplifier inputs — highs to the tweeter amp, mids to the woofer amp, and bass to the subwoofer amp, for example

Make sure the patch cords supplying the musical signal to the crossover and amplifier are kept well away from potential sources of noise, such as the amp's power and ground cables, the vehicle's brake light wires, or rear window defroster wires.

Kicker KX3 3-way crossover

Kicker KX3 3-way crossover

Crossover points

Crossover points are the frequency settings of a crossover that represent the points in each output band where the signal is attenuated, turned down, by one-half — a 3 dB drop in power. The intention is, that at each crossover frequency, two adjacent drivers (tweeters, speakers, or subs) are playing the note at one-half power — so the result is full power at each crossover point.

The crossover points you choose ultimately depend on the frequency response of each component driver in your speaker system. Check out the frequency response specifications of each of your drivers and use those frequencies as preliminary crossover points. If you can't find any such specifications, start with 100 Hz as the crossover point between your subwoofer and mid-bass drivers, and 2,000 Hz for the midrange-to-tweeter transition point.

Adjusting frequencies

Unlike the following tune-up tips that take into consideration your music's tone and volume along its entire spectrum, you adjust crossover frequencies to eliminate the distortions a driver will put out when it tries to reproduce notes it can't play well, at the extremes of its frequency response. So, for instance, if you hear your mid-bass/midrange driver distorting on low notes, you adjust its crossover point higher, so it won't even try to play those notes. The same goes for the midrange/tweeter crossover point — you move the crossover point to eliminate distortion — higher to clean up the tweeter's sound, lower for midrange clarity.

Kicker Front Row signal processor

Kicker Front Row signal processor

Now you get to tune your system

The first objective, in setting up a crossover, is to end up with each band of frequencies — for the tweeters, midrange speakers, and subwoofer, for example — playing at the same volume. Next, you apply the EQ curves and other tone adjustments you like in your music. Then, you do it all again, re-setting the crossover to compensate for the equalization adjustments. Some people even tweak the EQ again after that, and on and on, until it sounds perfect to them.

You start off by playing familiar music with all the tone and EQ controls off or set flat and the amp gains down low. All crossovers are different, but you can use the following as a general guide for setting a 3-way crossover:

  1. Find the top level at which your receiver plays your music cleanly. Turn up the volume until music distorts, then turn it back a little.
  2. Set the input sensitivity of the crossover, if it has it. Crossovers with this feature will also have clip indicator lights that help you set this control.
  3. Set the level for each output so they play evenly.
  4.  Set the gain for each pair of amplifier channels. Turn it up until the music distorts, then turn it back a little.
  5. Re-set the crossover output levels to balance the highs, mids, and lows playing from each component. Try to make the system's total response flat— high notes, mid notes, and low notes all playing at the same volume.
  6. Re-set the amp gains, to compensate for any crossover output adjustments.
  7. Re-set crossover output levels again.
  8. Apply EQ or tone adjustments at the receiver. Adjust every available control and /or boost to allow your music to sound its best. Turn on the bass boost, if you use one.
  9. Because you've added equalization, you'll have to slightly re-set the crossover and amp gains again. Find the top level at which your receiver plays music cleanly. Turn up the volume until the music distorts, then turn it back a little.
  10. Re-set the input sensitivity of the crossover, if it has it.
  11. Adjust the level for each crossover output to blend them together smoothly.
  12.  Set the gain for each pair of amplifier channels. Turn it up until the music distorts, then turn it back a little.
  13. Re-set the crossover output levels to balance the highs, mids, and lows playing from each component. This time, your goal is to make it sound great, not flat.
  14. Adjust the amp gains, to compensate for any crossover output adjustments.
  15. Adjust crossover output levels again, if necessary.
  16. Adjust the tone at your receiver again, to allow your music to sound its best, and enjoy.
 
Audio Control 2XS 2-way crossover

Audio Control 2XS 2-way crossover

  • Adan

    Posted on 9/28/2023

    Question what is the best way to run my system. I have a Rockford fosgate R2 500x4 which gives 75w rms@4ohm and 125w @2ohm for my mids and highs, and a Orion XTR1500.1DZ for my bass. I plan on running my component set speaker individually off of one channel each so ch1. Left kick panel with a 6.5 (200w rms)and tweeter ( 80w rms), off of its crossover hooked up @4ohms . And right side off its own channel (ch2) feeding the crossover. Leaving me with two 6.5 mids (150w rms), two 4" (100w rms) mids, and two 1" (125w rms) bullet tweeters. I'm planning on adding a crossover and connecting the 6.5 and the tweeter off of it. And the 4" off the same channel as the crossover (pre crossover). Meaning they would be playing @ 2ohms. Does that sound ok or is there a different way I could hook it up while not adding another amp. Maybe running 4" straight off the head unit ? Not sure if that's possible while running an amp.

    Commenter image

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 9/28/2023

    Adan, Can't tell if you're planning a 4-way or a 3-way system. Without knowing precisely what component speakers you're referring, we can't help you with advice. If you want a question answered about a system, you must identify the gear by brand names and model numbers so we can get the right information to you.
  • John from Superior

    Posted on 6/7/2023

    Im curious if adding a component to my system changes the ohm load the amp sees. I have a Jvc 960 12ga speaker wire through out 0000/ from ho alternator to battery 0ga from battery to a fused distribution block feeding the T1500x1 T400x4 Focal isu 6x9 2way Focal 6.5" something front components which have the 1" tweeters. Those are 4ohm My impala came w the Bose which included a 3.5" driver near the rear 6x9s. I've added those back to the mix in an effort to produce more sound. The original 6x9 played bass or low frequencies only while the 3.5"s played the higher frequencies. The Bose setup is 2ohm, specifically those 3.5"s. I have disconnected the original amp effectively bypassing it. I have the Rockford fosgate t400x4 powering these cabin speakers. The hu has a crossover as well as the amps. I am using both crossovers set to approximately the frequencies the speakers specify. Regarding the rear speakers, bc I am mixing 2 and 4 ohm speakers how does the 4 ch see the load presented by 2 different ohm loads?

    Commenter image

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 6/7/2023

    John, Theoretically, an amplifier channel reacts to a halving of its impedance load by doubling its output power (wattage). A 4-channel amp with two channels connected to 4-ohm speakers and two channels connected to 2-ohm speakers will produce different amounts of power per channel - some as much as twice as the others. The amplifier shouldn't care if some channels are louder than others. Unless there're some sort of computerized control systems in the amp that would automatically adjust for any perceived imbalances.
  • Joseph

    Posted on 4/3/2023

    For active crossover I'm running an audio control dm608, for my horns the came with an inline crossover ds18 dr2. Do I need to still use it even though I have crossover settings setup right on dm608. Please advise.

    Commenter image

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 4/4/2023

    Joseph, If your DSP is performing active crossover duties you don't need the passive crossover. In other words, use one crossover only for each device.
  • Cole from Seattle

    Posted on 9/16/2022

    Hi, I am curious how to determine how much power should be sent to the woofer vs. the tweeter in a 2-way active setup. Let's say the speakers are rated for 100 W RMS as a 'stock' setup with a passive crossover, in this case I would just buy an amp that is around 100 W RMS. However, if I choose to get rid of the passive crossover and wire the same speakers as passive what kind of wattage can I send to each channel? Could I just send 100 W RMS to both the tweeter and the woofer or do I need to reduce the RMS wattage to the tweeter to avoid damaging it? If so is there some sort of guideline/ratio on woofer to tweeter power? Thanks!

    Commenter image

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 9/17/2022

    Cole, If your component set has a 100 watts RMS power rating, both the woofer and the tweeter can handle 100 watts RMS. When playing music, the amount of power distributed to the individual tweeters and woofers depend on the program's signal. If a bass plays, all the power will go to the woofer. If a piccolo plays, all power goes to the tweeter. However, as it takes much more power to produce low notes as it does high notes, a tweeter doesn't necessarily need as much amplifier power as a woofer.
  • Edgar Rodriguez from Inglewood

    Posted on 3/24/2021

    Hello just bought jbl 960c and jbl gto midrange my question is can I get speaker input from anywhere from my vehicle to supply it to the crossover does it matter it is from the rear factory harness or the front factory speaker harness

    Commenter image

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 3/24/2021

    Edgar, Use the factory wiring of the position each new speaker is going - front speakers to front wiring; rear speakers to rear wiring.
  • Sly from Honolulu

    Posted on 3/16/2021

    I bought the JBL 601C component speaker for my Honda Civic and it came with woofers, tweeters(with wire attached), crossovers, speaker harness, mounting brackets, and the screws. I'm confused on where to connect the wires? Which number(if any) is the right way? 1)-woofer>speaker harness>original speaker wire? -Tweeter wire>Tweeter of crossover? Where would I connect the input and woofer part of the crossover? 2)-original speaker wire>speaker harness>input of crossover -tweeter wire>tweeter of crossover -woofer>?(no wire left) >woofer of crossover? It seems like I need extra wires for either of the options that I mentioned above and the tweeter wires seem a bit short. Am I supposed to receive extra wires aside from the tweeter with a wire attached and the speaker harness?

  • Sly from Honolulu

    Posted on 3/16/2021

    I bought the JBL 601C component speaker for my Honda Civic and it came with woofers, tweeters(with wire attached), crossovers, speaker harness, mounting brackets, and the screws. I'm confused on where to connect the wires? Am I supposed to connect the woofer>speaker harness>original speaker wire? Tweeter wire>crossover? But where would I connect the input and woofer part of the crossover? Am I missing wires or something?

    Commenter image

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 3/31/2021

    Sly, The wire from the vehicle's amp or receiver goes to the crossover's input. The tweeter goes to the crossover's tweeter output, and the woofer connects to the woofer output. If you need some more hook-up wire, give us a call so an Advisor can get some out to you as soon as possible.
  • jim kappesser from Syracuse

    Posted on 1/18/2021

    I came upon the below statement while searching w/ Google for active crossover design: "How do you wire an active crossover? They each go between your amplifier and a speaker and do not require a power connection, a turn-on lead, or grounding. You connect the speaker wire coming from your amp to the crossover's input. Then the tweeter gets wired to the tweeter output, and the woofer to the woofer output. That's it. How to Install a Crossover - [link removed] An obvious description of the installation of a passive crossover. Just thought I'd let you know the Google search is crediting Crutchfield with this "false" info. Great article above, Thanks...

  • crazyhatch from San Jose

    Posted on 1/7/2021

    Hi If I choose to use a electronic crossover, should I still attach the passive one of the component set? or just wiring them directly to the amp?

    Commenter image

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 1/12/2021

    Crazy, An electronic, active crossover takes full-range signals from the receiver, divides them into highs and lows, and sends them on to the high and low amplifiers. No need for any passive crossovers.
  • Giorgi from Quimper

    Posted on 7/14/2020

    I connect my tweeter and back door woofers to crossover now i do not know where should i connect input cables which coming from crossover to ampli , can you tell me where is its place ?

    Commenter image

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 7/16/2020

    Giorgi, A crossover's input usually comes from an amplifier's speaker output.

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